Series LR circuit.

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 Assume figure 3-49, view (A), represents deflection coils. If we apply a voltage waveshape to the circuit, which will provide a square wave across inductor L, and a sawtooth across resistor R, then a linear current rise will result. Figure 3-49A. - Series LR circuit. View (B) of figure 3-49 shows the waveforms when Ea is a square wave. Recall that the inductor acts as an open circuit at this first instant. Current now starts to flow and develops a voltage across the resistor. With a square wave applied, the voltage across the inductor starts to drop as soon as any voltage appears across the resistor. This is due to the fact that the voltage across the inductor and resistor must add up to the applied voltage. Figure 3-49B. - Series LR circuit. With Ea being a trapezoidal voltage, as shown in figure 3-49, view (C), the instant current flows, a voltage appears across the resistor, and the applied voltage increases. With an increasing applied voltage, the inductor voltage remains constant (EL) at the jump level and circuit current (IR) rises at a linear rate from the jump voltage point. Notice that if you add the inductor voltage (EL) and resistor voltage (ER) at any point between times T0 and T1, the sum is the applied voltage (Ea). The key fact here is that a trapezoidal voltage must be applied to a sweep coil to cause a linear rise of current. The linear rise of current will cause a uniform, changing magnetic field which, in turn, will cause an electron beam to move at a constant rate across a crt. Figure 3-49C. - Series LR circuit. There are many ways to generate a trapezoidal waveshape. For example, the rectangular part could be generated in one circuit, the sawtooth portion in another, and the two combined waveforms in still a third circuit. A far easier, and less complex, way is to use an RC circuit in combination with a transistor to generate the trapezoidal waveshape in one stage. Figure 3-50, view (A), shows the schematic diagram of a trapezoidal generator. The waveshapes for the circuit are shown in view (B). R1 provides forward bias for Q1 and, without an input gate, Q1 conducts very hard (near saturation), C1 couples the input gate signal to the base of Q1. R2, R3, and C2 form the RC network which forms the trapezoidal wave. The output is taken across R3 and C2. Figure 3-50A. - Trapezoidal waveform generator. Figure 3-50B. - Trapezoidal waveform generator. With Q1 conducting very hard, collector voltage is near 0 volts prior to the gate being applied. The voltage across R2 is about 50 volts. This means no current flows across R3, and C2 has no charge. At T0, the negative alternation of the input gate is applied to the base of Q1, driving it into cutoff. At this time the transistor is effectively removed from the circuit. The circuit is now a series-RC network with 50 volts applied. At the instant Q1 cuts off, 50 volts will appear across the combination of R2 and R3 (the capacitor being a short at the first instant). The 50 volts will divide proportionally, according to the size of the two resistors. R2 then will have 49.5 volts and R3 will have 0.5 volt. The 0.5 volt across R3 (jump resistor) is the amplitude of the jump voltage. Since the output is taken across R3 and C2 in series, the output "jumps" to 0.5 volt. Observe how a trapezoidal generator differs from a sawtooth generator. If the output were taken across the capacitor alone, the output voltage would be 0 at the first instant. But splitting the R of the RC network so that the output is taken across the capacitor and part of the total resistance produces the jump voltage. Refer again to figure 3-50, view (A) and view (B). From T0 to T1, C2 begins charging toward 50 volts through R2 and R3. The time constant for this circuit is 10 milliseconds. If the input gate is 1,000 microseconds, the capacitor can charge for only 10 percent of 1TC, and the sawtooth part of the trapezoidal wave will be linear. At T1, the input gate ends and Q1 begins to conduct heavily. C2 discharges through R3 and Q1. The time required to discharge C2 is primarily determined by the values of R3 and C2. The minimum discharge time (in this circuit) is 500 microseconds (5KW X .02mF X 5). At T2, the capacitor has discharged back to 0 volts and the circuit is quiescent. It remains in this condition until T3 when another gate is applied to the transistor. The amplitude of the jump voltage was calculated to be 0.5 volt. The sawtooth portion of the wave is linear because the time, T0 to T1, is only 10 percent of the total charge time. The amplitude of the trapezoidal wave is approximately 5 volts. The electrical length is the same as the input gate length, or 1,000 microseconds. Linearity is affected in the same manner as in the sawtooth generator. Increasing R2 or C2, or decreasing gate width, will improve linearity. Changing the applied voltage will increase output amplitude, but will not affect linearity. Linearity of the trapezoidal waveform, produced by the circuit in figure 3-50, view (A) and view (B)depends on two factors, gate length and the time constant of the RC circuit. Recall that these are the same factors that controlled linearity in the sawtooth generator. The formula developed earlier still remains true and enables us to determine what effect these factors have on linearity. An increase in gate length results in an increase in the number of time constants and an increase in the percentage of charge that the capacitor will take on during this time interval. As stated earlier, if the number of time constants were to exceed 0.1, linearity would decrease. The reason for a decrease in linearity is that a greater percentage of VCC is used. The Universal Time Constant Chart (figure 3-39) shows that the charge line begins to curve. A decrease in gate length has the opposite effect on linearity in that it causes linearity to increase. The reason for this increase is that a smaller number of time constants are used and, in turn, a smaller percentage of the applied VCC is used. Changing the value of resistance or capacitance in the circuit also affects linearity. If the value of C2 or R3 is increased, the time is increased for 1 time constant. An increase in the time for 1TC results in a decrease in the number of time constants required for good linearity. As stated earlier, a decrease in the number of time constants results in an increase in linearity (less than 0.1TC). In addition to an increase in jump voltage (larger value of R3) and a decrease in the amplitude (physical length) of the sawtooth produced by the circuit, electrical length remains the same because the length of the gate was not changed. R2 has a similar effect on linearity because it is in series with R3. As an example, decreasing the value of R2 results in a decrease in linearity. The equation illustrates that by decreasing R (TC = RC), TC decreases and an increase in the number of time constants causes a decrease in linearity. Other effects are an increase in jump voltage and an increase in the amplitude (physical length) of the sawtooth. Changing the value of VCC does not affect linearity. Linearity is dependent on gate length, R, and C. VCC does affect the amplitude of the waveform and the value of jump voltage that is obtained. Q.11 For an RC circuit to produce a linear output across the capacitor, the voltage across the capacitor may not exceed what percent of the applied voltage? Q.12 Increasing gate length in a sawtooth generator does what to linearity? Q.13 In a sawtooth generator, why is the transistor turned on for a longer time than the discharge time of the RC network? Q.14 What is added to a sawtooth generator to produce a trapezoidal wave?