RESONANCE

For every combination of L and C, there is only ONE frequency (in both series and
parallel circuits) that causes X_{L} to exactly equal X_{C}; this
frequency is known as the RESONANT FREQUENCY. When the resonant frequency is fed to a
series or parallel circuit, X_{L} becomes equal to X_{C}, and the circuit
is said to be RESONANT to that frequency. The circuit is now called a RESONANT CIRCUIT;
resonant circuits are tuned circuits. The circuit condition wherein X_{L} becomes
equal to X_{C} is known as RESONANCE.

Each LCR circuit responds to resonant frequency differently than it does to any other
frequency. Because of this, an LCR circuit has the ability to separate frequencies. For
example, suppose the TV or radio station you want to see or hear is broadcasting at the
resonant frequency. The LC "tuner" in your set can divide the frequencies,
picking out the resonant frequency and rejecting the other frequencies. Thus, the tuner
selects the station you want and rejects all other stations. If you decide to select
another station, you can change the frequency by tuning the resonant circuit to the
desired frequency.

RESONANT FREQUENCY

As stated before, the frequency at which X_{L} equals X_{C} (in a given
circuit) is known as the resonant frequency of that circuit. Based on this, the following
formula has been derived to find the exact resonant frequency when the values of circuit
components are known:

There are two important points to remember about this formula. First, the resonant
frequency found when using the formula will cause the reactances (X_{L} and X_{C})
of the L and C components to be equal. Second, any change in the value of either L or C
will cause a change in the resonant frequency.

An __increase__ in the value of either L or C, or both L and C, will __lower__
the resonant frequency of a given circuit. A __decrease__ in the value of L or C, or
both L and C, will __raise__ the resonant frequency of a given circuit.

The symbol for resonant frequency used in this text is f_{ r}. Different texts
and References may use other symbols for resonant frequency, such as f_{o}, F_{r},
and fR. The symbols for many circuit parameters have been standardized while others have
been left to the discretion of the writer. When you study, apply the rules given by the
writer of the text or reference; by doing so, you should have no trouble with nonstandard
symbols and designations.

The resonant frequency formula in this text is:

By substituting the constant .159 for the quantity

the formula can be simplified to the following:

Let's use this formula to figure the resonant frequency (f_{ r}). The circuit
is shown in the practice tank circuit of figure 1-4.

Figure 1-4. - Practice tank circuit.

The important point here is not the formula nor the mathematics. In fact, you may never
have to compute a resonant frequency. The important point is for you to see that any given
combination of L and C can be resonant at only one frequency; in this case, 205 kHz.

The universal reactance curves of figures 1-2 and 1-3 are joined in figure 1-5 to show
the relative values of X_{L} and X_{L} at resonance, below resonance, and
above resonance.

Figure 1-5. - Relationship between X_{L} and X_{C} as frequency
increases.

First, note that f_{r}, (the resonant frequency) is that frequency (or point)
where the two curves cross. At this point, and ONLY this point, X_{L} equals X_{C}.
Therefore, the frequency indicated by f_{r} is the one and only frequency of
resonance. Note the resistance symbol which indicates that at resonance all reactance is
cancelled and the circuit impedance is effectively purely resistive. Remember,
a.c.
circuits that are resistive have no phase shift between voltage and current. Therefore, at
resonance, phase shift is cancelled. The phase angle is effectively zero.

Second, look at the area of the curves to the left of f_{ r}. This area shows
the relative reactances of the circuit at frequencies BELOW resonance. To these LOWER
frequencies, X_{C} will always be greater than X_{L}. There will always be
some capacitive reactance left in the circuit after all inductive reactance has been
cancelled. Because the impedance has a reactive component, there will be a phase shift. We
can also state that below f_{r} the circuit will appear capacitive.

Lastly, look at the area of the curves to the right of f_{ r}. This area shows
the relative reactances of the circuit at frequencies ABOVE resonance. To these HIGHER
frequencies, X_{L} will always be greater than X_{C}. There will always be
some inductive reactance left in the circuit after all capacitive reactance has been
cancelled. The inductor symbol shows that to these higher frequencies, the circuit will
always appear to have some inductance. Because of this, there will be a phase shift.

RESONANT CIRCUITS

Resonant circuits may be designed as series resonant or parallel resonant. Each has the
ability to discriminate between its resonant frequency and all other frequencies. How this
is accomplished by both series- and parallel-LC circuits is the subject of the next
section.

NOTE: Practical circuits are often more complex and difficult to understand than
simplified versions. Simplified versions contain all of the basic features of a practical
circuit, but leave out the nonessential features. For this reason, we will first look at
the IDEAL SERIES-RESONANT CIRCUIT - a circuit that really doesn't exist except for our
purposes here.