VIDEO AND RF AMPLIFIERS
Upon completion of this chapter, you will be able to:
In this chapter you will be given information on the Frequency response of amplifiers as well as specific information on video and rf amplifiers.
For all practical purposes, all the general information you studied in chapter 1 about audio amplifiers will apply to the video and rf amplifiers which you are about to study.
You may be wondering why you need to learn about video and rf amplifiers. You need to understand these circuits because, as a technician, you will probably be involved in working on equipment in which these circuits are used. Many of the circuits shown in this and the next chapter are incomplete and would not be used in actual equipment. For example, the complete biasing network may not be shown. This is done so you can concentrate on the concepts being presented without being overwhelmed by an abundance of circuit elements. With this idea in mind, the information that is presented in this chapter is real, practical information about video and rf amplifiers. It is the sort of information that you will use in working with these circuits. Engineering information (such as design specifications) will not be presented because it is not needed to understand the concepts that a technician needs to perform the job of circuit analysis and repair. Before you are given the specific information on video and rf amplifiers, you may be wondering how these circuits are used.
Video amplifiers are used to amplify signals that represent video information. (That's where the term "video" comes from.) Video is the "picture" portion of a television signal. The "sound" portion is audio. Although the Navy uses television in many ways, video signals are used for more than television. Radar systems (discussed later in this training series) use video signals and, therefore, video amplifiers. Video amplifiers are also used in video recorders and some communication and control devices. In addition to using video amplifiers, televisions use rf amplifiers. Many other devices also use rf amplifiers, such as radios, navigational devices, and communications systems. Almost any device that uses broadcast, or transmitted, information will use an rf amplifier.
As you should recall, rf amplifiers are used to amplify signals between 10 kilohertz (10 kHz) and 100,000 megahertz (100,000 MHz) (not this entire band of frequencies, but any band of frequencies within these limits). Therefore, any device that uses frequencies between 10 kilohertz and 100,000 megahertz will most likely use an rf amplifier.
Before you study the details of video and rf amplifiers, you need to learn a little more about the Frequency response of an amplifier and frequency-response curves.
AMPLIFIER Frequency response
In chapter 1 of this module you were shown the frequency-response curve of an audio amplifier. Every amplifier has a frequency-response curve associated with it. Technicians use frequency-response curves because they provide a "picture" of the performance of an amplifier at various frequencies.
You will probably never have to draw a frequency-response curve, but, in order to use one, you should know how a frequency-response curve is created. The amplifier for which the frequency-response curve is created is tested at various frequencies. At each frequency, the input signal is set to some predetermined level of voltage (or current). This same voltage (or current) level for all of the input signals is used to provide a standard input and to allow evaluation of the output of the circuit at each of the frequencies tested. For each of these frequencies, the output is measured and marked on a graph. The graph is marked "frequency" along the horizontal axis and "voltage" or "current" along the vertical axis. When points have been plotted for all of the frequencies tested, the points are connected to form the frequency-response curve. The shape of the curve represents the Frequency response of the amplifier.
Some amplifiers should be "flat" across a band of frequencies. In other words, for every frequency within the band, the amplifier should have equal gain (equal response). For frequencies outside the band, the amplifier gain will be much lower.
For other amplifiers, the desired Frequency response is different. For example, perhaps the amplifier should have high gain at two frequencies and low gain for all other frequencies. The frequency-response curve for this type of amplifier would show two "peaks." In other amplifiers the frequency-response curve will have one peak indicating high gain at one frequency and lower gain at all others.
Note the frequency-response curve shown in figure 2-1.
This is the frequency-response curve for an audio amplifier as described in chapter 1. It is "flat" from 15 hertz (15 Hz) to 20 kilohertz (20 kHz).
Figure 2-1. - Frequency response curve of audio amplifier.
Notice in the figure that the lower frequency limit is labeled f1 and the upper frequency limit is labeled f2.
Note also the portion inside the frequency-response curve marked "BANDWIDTH."
You may be wondering just what a "bandwidth" is.
BANDWIDTH OF AN AMPLIFIER
The bandwidth represents the amount or "width" of frequencies, or the "band of frequencies," that the amplifier is MOST effective in amplifying. However, the bandwidth is NOT the same as the band of frequencies that is amplified. The bandwidth (BW) of an amplifier is the difference between the frequency limits of the amplifier. For example, the band of frequencies for an amplifier may be from 10 kilohertz (10 kHz) to 30 kilohertz (30 kHz).
In this case, the bandwidth would be 20 kilohertz (20 kHz). As another example, if an amplifier is designed to amplify frequencies between 15 hertz (15 Hz) and 20 kilohertz (20 kHz), the bandwidth will be equal to 20 kilohertz minus 15 hertz or 19,985 hertz (19,985 Hz). This is shown in figure 2-1.
You should notice on the figure that the frequency-response curve shows output voltage (or current) against frequency. The lower and upper frequency limits (f1 and f2) are also known as HALF-POWER POINTS. The half-power points are the points at which the output voltage (or current) is 70.7 percent of the maximum output voltage (or current). Any frequency that produces less than 70.7 percent of the maximum output voltage (or current) is outside the bandwidth and, in most cases, is not considered a useable output of the amplifier.
The reason these points are called "half-power points" is that the true output power will be half (50 percent) of the maximum true output power when the output voltage (or current) is 70.7 percent of the maximum output voltage (or current), as shown below. (All calculations are rounded off to two decimal places.)
As you learned in NEETS, module 2, in an a.c. circuit true power is calculated using the resistance (R) of the circuit, NOT the impedance (Z). If the circuit produces a maximum output voltage of 10 volts across a 50-ohm load, then:
When the output voltage drops to 70.7 percent of the maximum voltage of 10 volts, then:
As you can see, the true power is 50 percent (half) of the maximum true power when the output voltage is 70.7 percent of the maximum output voltage. If, instead, you are using the output current of the above circuit, the maximum current is
The calculations are:
At 70.7 percent of the output current (.14 A):
On figure 2-1, the two points marked f1 and f2 will enable you to determine the frequency-response limits of the amplifier. In this case, the limits are 15 hertz (15 Hz) and 20 kilohertz (20 kHz). You should now see how a frequency-response curve can enable you to determine the frequency limits and the bandwidth of an amplifier.