Wiring diagrams are necessary to troubleshoot and repair electrical or electronic circuits. The wiring diagram for an automobile is shown in figure 3-11. It shows all the electrical components and that the interconnecting wiring is color coded.">
A wiring diagram is a detailed diagram of each circuit installation showing all of the wiring, connectors, terminal boards, and electrical or electronic components of the circuit. It also identifies the wires by wire numbers or color coding. Wiring diagrams are necessary to troubleshoot and repair electrical or electronic circuits. The wiring diagram for an automobile is shown in figure 3-11. It shows all the electrical components and that the interconnecting wiring is color coded.
Figure 3-11. - Wiring diagram.
You should use the schematic diagram previously discussed to determine where the trouble might be in the circuit when a malfunction occurs. The schematic diagram does not show the terminals, connector points, and so forth, of the circuit. Therefore, you must go to the circuit wiring diagram to determine where to make the voltage or resistance checks in the circuit when troubleshooting. Following is an example of how to use a schematic diagram in conjunction with a wiring diagram to troubleshoot a circuit.
In the discussion of schematic diagrams, you will recall that when the light switch is pulled to the PARK position, the tail lights, side panel lights, tag light, and the instrument lights come on. Now, suppose that when the light switch is pulled to the PARK position all the lights come on, except the tag light. Referring to the schematic diagram (figure 3-10), you will recall that when the light switch is placed in the PARK position, +12 volts are applied to point (2). If all the lights come on except the tag light, then the fault must be between point (2) and the tag light ground.
On the schematic shown in figure 3-11, you can see that there are numerous connections to point (2). Point (2) on the wiring diagram is actually composed of three different functions: terminal 1 of TB 1 (the head lamp junction block), terminals 1 and 2 of TB2 (the tail lamp junction block), and the "T" terminal of the light switch; all correspond to point (2) on the schematic. The fault here is in the tag light, which normally receives its +12 volts from terminal 1 of TB2.
To use a voltmeter to find the fault, place the positive lead of the voltmeter to the ground terminal of the tag light and the negative lead to the frame. The voltmeter should read zero, because there should be no difference of potential between the two points. If the meter reads a voltage, the ground lead is either open or has a high-resistance connection. If the meter reads zero, as it should, you will have to go to another test point. In this case, place the positive voltmeter lead on the positive terminal of the tail light. If the voltmeter reads +12 volts, the light bulb is probably burned out or the light socket is defective. If the voltmeter reads zero, then the open is between terminal 1 of TB2 and the light.
A terminal diagram is useful when connecting wires to terminal boards, relays, switches, and other components of a circuit. Figure 3-12 shows two typical terminal diagrams. View A of the figure shows the wire numbers connected to each terminal of a terminal board. View B shows the different color codes of the wires that are connected to a relay.
Figure 3-12. - Terminal diagrams.
This has been a brief overview of the use and interpretation of electrical diagrams. The diagrams used were selected because of their simplicity and ease of interpretation. Many diagrams you will encounter are far more complex. Start with the simpler diagrams you will be working with on the job. Your proficiency in using the more complex diagrams will increase with experience and study.
Q.13 What type of diagram is the most detailed?
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