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The facial skeleton consists of 14 stationary bones and a mobile lower jawbone (mandible). These 14 bones (table 3-2) form the basic shape of the face, and are responsible for providing attachments for muscles that make the jaw move and control facial expressions. Figures 3-8 and 3-9 show the bones of the face.

Maxillae Bones

The maxillae bones are the largest bones of the face and together form the upper jaw. The maxilla (singular) consists of a body and. four processes: zygomatic, frontal, alveolar and palatine. The maxilla forms the hard palate, floor of the nose, part of the orbits (eye sockets), and the tooth sockets of the upper teeth. Above the roots of the upper teeth and below the

Figure 3-7.\Ethmoid bone viewed from above.

Table 3-2.\Bones of the Face

Figure 3-8.\Anterior view of facial skeleton.

Figure 3-9.\Posterior view of facial skeleton.

floor of the orbits are the maxillary sinuses; the largest of the sinuses.

Palatine Bones

The palatine bones are located behind the maxillae (fig. 3-10). The bones are somewhat L-shaped and form the posterior portion of the hard palate and the floor of the nose. Anteriorly, they join with the maxillary bone.

Zygomatic Bones (Zygoma, Malar Bone)

The zygomatic bones make up the prominence of the cheeks and extend from the zygomatic process of the temporal bone to the zygomatic process of the maxilla. The zygomatic bones form the "cheek bones" and help to form the sides and floor of the orbits.

Figure 3-10.\Anterior view of palatine bones.

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