power distribution of an optical fiber. Describe optical fiber launch conditions and modal effects that affect optical fiber and optical connection measurements. Understand the term optical time-domain reflectometry and the interpretation of an optical time-domain reflectometer (OTDR) trace. ">
FIBER OPTIC MEASUREMENT TECHNIQUES
Upon completion of this chapter, you should be able to do the following:
Identify the prime reasons for conducting fiber optic manufacturing laboratory and field measurements.Describe the optical fiber and optical connection laboratory measurements performed by the Navy to evaluate fiber optic component and system performance.
Describe the near-field and far-field optical power distribution of an optical fiber.Describe optical fiber launch conditions and modal effects that affect optical fiber and optical connection measurements.
Understand the term optical time-domain reflectometry and the interpretation of an optical time-domain reflectometer (OTDR) trace.Describe the procedure for locating a fiber fault using an OTDR.
FIBER OPTIC MEASUREMENTS
Fiber optic data links operate reliably if fiber optic component manufacturers and end users perform the necessary laboratory and field measurements. Manufacturers must test how component designs, material properties, and fabrication techniques affect the performance of fiber optic components. These tests can be categorized as design tests or quality control tests. Design tests are conducted during the development of a component. Design tests characterize the component's performance (optical, mechanical, and environmental) in the intended application. Once the component performance is characterized, the manufacturer generally only conducts quality control tests. Quality control tests verify that the parts produced are the same as the parts the design tests were conducted on. When manufacturers ship fiber optic components, they provide quality control data detailing the results of measurements performed during or after component fabrication.
End users (equipment manufacturers, shipbuilders, maintenance personnel, test personnel, and so on) should measure some of these parameters upon receipt before installing the component into the fiber optic data link. These tests determine if the component has been damaged in the shipping process. In addition, end users should measure some component parameters after installing or repairing fiber optic components in the field. The values obtained can be compared to the system installation specifications. These measurements determine if the installation or repair process has degraded component performance and will affect data link operation.
Whenever a measurement is made, it should be made using a standard measurement procedure. For most fiber optic measurements, these standard procedures are documented by the Electronics Industries Association/Telecommunications Industries Association (EIA/TIA). Each component measurement procedure is assigned a unique number given by EIA/TIA-455-X. The X is a sequential number assigned to that particular component test procedure. System level test procedures are assigned unique numbers given by EIA/TIA-526-X. Again the X is a sequential number assigned to that particular system test procedure.