ANSWERS TO QUESTION Q1. THROUGH Q27.

A1. Negative.

A2. Positive.

A3. Biasing.

A4. The diode.

A5. Conducting, cutoff.

A6. Short time constant.

A7. Long time constant.

A8. Most negative.

A9. Positive potential.

A10. Positive clamper with negative bias.

A11. Most positive.

A12. Negative potential.

A13. Positive bias.

A14. -5 volts.

A15. It is composed of an infinite number of odd harmonics in phase with the fundamental.

A16. It is composed of odd harmonics some of which are out phase with the fundamental.

A17. All the odd harmonics are in phase with the fundamental in the square wave. This is
not true of the odd harmonics in the peaked wave. A18. The time constant is long and the
output is taken across the capacitor in an RC circuit.

A19. A pure sine wave cannot be integrated; it contains no harmonics.

A20. The ability of the inductor to oppose a change in current.

A21. The time-constant value of a long time constant-circuit is 10 times the value of the
input pulse duration. The short time-constant circuit has a time constant of 1/10 of the
pulse duration.

A22. A more complete integration of the waveform would result from the long time constant.

A23. In an RC circuit the output is taken across the resistor. In the RL circuit the
output is taken across the inductor.

A24. Frequency counters or frequency dividers.

A25. The frequency of the voltage input.

A26. To provide a quick discharge path for C1.

A27. The load resistor in a positive counter is replaced by a capacitor in a step counter.