Some sine-wave oscillators use resonant circuits consisting of inductance and capacitance. For example, recall the tank circuit in which a resonant circuit stores energy alternately in the inductor and capacitor, producing a sine wave. You studied this action of the tank circuit in chapter 1.
If there were absolutely no internal resistances in a tank circuit, oscillations would continue indefinitely, as shown in figure 2-3, view (A). Each resonant circuit does, however, contain some resistance which dissipates power. This power loss causes the amplitude to decrease, as shown in views (B) and (C). The reduction of amplitude in an oscillator circuit is referred to as DAMPING. Damping is caused by both tank and load resistances. The larger the tank resistance, the greater the amount of damping. Loading the tank causes the same effect as increasing the internal resistance of the tank. The effect of this damping can be overcome by applying regenerative feedback.
Figure 2-3A. - Effects of damping.
Figure 2-3B. - Effects of damping.
Figure 2-3C. - Effects of damping.
Figure 2-4 shows a block diagram of a typical LC oscillator. Notice that the oscillator contains the three basic requirements for sustained oscillations: amplification, a frequency-determining device, and regenerative feedback.
Figure 2-4. - LC oscillator.
The amplifier supplies energy to begin what is known as the FLYWHEEL EFFECT. The flywheel effect is the maintenance of oscillations in a circuit in the intervals between pulses of excitation energy. Recall that in chapter 1 the tank circuit alternately stored energy in the inductor and capacitor. The LC network provides initial oscillations. A portion of the output of the LC network is then returned to the input of the amplifier through the regenerative-feedback network to sustain the oscillations.
When a tank circuit is used to develop oscillations in an oscillator, the output frequency of the oscillator is primarily the resonant frequency of the tank circuit and can be found by the formula:
Another frequency-determining device is the CRYSTAL. The crystal may be used with a tank circuit, or it may perform alone. Crystals exhibit a characteristic known as the PIEZOELECTRIC EFFECT. The piezoelectric effect is the property of a crystal by which mechanical forces produce electrical charges and, conversely, electrical charges produce mechanical forces. This effect is a form of oscillation similar to the flywheel effect of a tank circuit.
The piezoelectric effect can be seen in a number of crystal substances. The most important of these are the minerals quartz and Rochelle salt. Although quartz does not exhibit the piezoelectric effect to the degree that Rochelle salt does, quartz is used for frequency control in oscillators because of its greater mechanical strength. Another mineral, tourmaline, is physically strong like quartz; but because it is more expensive, it is not used extensively as an fdd. This discussion will deal only with the quartz crystal.
The crystals used in oscillator circuits are thin sheets, or wafers, cut from natural or synthetic quartz and ground to a specific thickness to obtain the desired resonant frequency. The crystals are mounted in holders, which support them physically and provide electrodes by which voltage is applied. The holder must allow the crystals freedom for vibration. There are many different types of holders. One type is shown in figure 2-5.
Figure 2-5. - Crystal holder.
The frequency for which a crystal is ground is referred to as the NATURAL RESONANT FREQUENCY of the crystal. Voltage applied to the crystal produces mechanical vibrations which, in turn, produce an output voltage at the natural resonant frequency of the crystal. A vibrating crystal can be represented by an equivalent electrical circuit composed of capacitance, inductance, and resistance.
Figure 2-6, view (A), illustrates the symbol of a crystal; view (B) shows an equivalent circuit for the crystal. View (C) shows an equivalent circuit for the crystal and the holder; C1 represents the capacitance between the metal plates of the holder.
Figure 2-6A. - Crystal symbol and equivalent circuits. SYMBOL
Figure 2-6B. - Crystal symbol and equivalent circuits. EQUIVALENT CIRCUIT
Figure 2-6C. - Crystal symbol and equivalent circuits. HOLDER ADDED
The Q (discussed in chapter 1) of a crystal is many times greater than that of an LC tank circuit. The high Q is present because the resistance in the crystal is extremely small. Commercially produced crystals range in Q from 5,000 to 30,000. The high Q causes the frequency stability to be much greater than that of an ordinary LC tank circuit. This is the reason a crystal is used in many sine-wave generator circuits.
Q.1 What are the two classifications of wave generators according to their output
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