Custom Search


All of the various types of filters we have discussed so far have had only one section. In many cases, the use of such simple filter circuits does not provide sufficiently sharp cutoff points. But by adding a capacitor, an inductor, or a resonant circuit in series or in parallel (depending upon the type of filter action required), the ideal effect is more nearly approached. When such additional units are added to a filter circuit, the form of the resulting circuit will resemble the letter T, or the Greek letter p (pi). They are, therefore, called T or ptype filters, depending upon which symbol they resemble. Two or more T or ptype filters may be connected together to produce a still sharper cutoff point. Figure 123, (view A) (view B) and (view C), and figure 124, (view A) (view B) and (view C) depict some of the common configurations of the T and ptype filters. Further discussion about the theory of operation of these circuits is beyond the intended scope of this module. If you are interested in learning more about filters, a good source of information to study is the Electronics Installation and Maintenance Handbook (EIMB), section 4 (Electronics Circuits), NAVSEA 0967LP0000120. Figure 123A.  Formation of a Ttype filter.
Figure 123B.  Formation of a Ttype filter.
Figure 123C.  Formation of a Ttype filter.
Figure 124A.  Formation of a ptype filter.
Figure 124B.  Formation of a ptype filter.
Figure 124C.  Formation of a ptype filter.
SAFETY PRECAUTIONS When working with resonant circuits, or electrical circuits, you must be aware of the potentially high voltages. Look at figure 125. With the series circuit at resonance, the total impedance of the circuit is 5 ohms. Figure 125.  Series RLC circuit at resonance.
Remember, the impedance of a seriesRLC circuit at resonance depends on the resistive element. At resonance, the impedance (Z) equals the resistance (R). Resistance is minimum and current is maximum. Therefore, the current at resonance is:
The voltage drops around the circuit with 2 amperes of current flow are: E_{C} = I_{T} X X_{C} E_{C} = 2 X 20 E_{C} = 40 volts a.c. E_{L} = I_{T} X X_{L} E_{L} = 2 X 20 E_{L} = 40 volts a.c. E_{R} = I_{T} X R E_{R} = 2 X 5 E_{R} = 10 volts a.c. You can see that there is a voltage gain across the reactive components at resonance. If the frequency was such that X_{L} and X_{C} were equal to 1000 ohms at the resonant frequency, the reactance voltage across the inductor or capacitor would increase to 2000 volts a.c. with 10 volts a.c. applied. Be aware that potentially high voltage can exist in seriesresonant circuits. _{} 
Integrated Publishing, Inc. 