Hybrid Rings magnitude of the E field in the b arm is indicated by the length of the arrows. Since the E lines are at maximum in the center of the b arm and minimum at the edge where the d arm entrance is located, no potential difference exists across the mouth of the d arm.">

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 If a signal is fed into the b arm of the magic- T, it will divide into two out-of-phase components. As shown in figure 1-67, view (A), these two components will move into the a and c arms. The signal entering the b arm will not enter the d arm because of the zero potential existing at the entrance of the d arm. The potential must be zero at this point to satisfy the boundary conditions of the b arm. This absence of potential is illustrated in views (B) and (C) where the magnitude of the E field in the b arm is indicated by the length of the arrows. Since the E lines are at maximum in the center of the b arm and minimum at the edge where the d arm entrance is located, no potential difference exists across the mouth of the d arm. Figure 1-67A. - Magic-T with input to arm b. Figure 1-67B. - Magic-T with input to arm b. Figure 1-67C. - Magic-T with input to arm b. In summary, when an input is applied to arm b of the magic-T hybrid junction, the output signals from arms a and c are 180 degrees out of phase with each other, and no output occurs at the d arm. The action that occurs when a signal is fed into the d arm of the magic-T is illustrated in figure 1-68. As with the H-type T junction, the signal entering the d arm divides and moves down the a and c arms as outputs which are in phase with each other and with the input. The shape of the E fields in motion is shown by the numbered curved slices. As the E field moves down the d arm, points 2 and 3 are at an equal potential. The energy divides equally into arms a and c, and the E fields in both arms become identical in shape. Since the potentials on both sides of the b arm are equal, no potential difference exists at the entrance to the b arm, resulting in no output. Figure 1-68. - Magic-T with input to arm d. When an input signal is fed into the a arm as shown in figure 1-69, a portion of the energy is coupled into the b arm as it would be in an E-type T junction. An equal portion of the signal is coupled through the d arm because of the action of the H-type junction. The c arm has two fields across it that are out of phase with each other. Therefore the fields cancel, resulting in no output at the c arm. The reverse of this action takes place if a signal is fed into the c arm, resulting in outputs at the b and d arms and no output at the a arm. Figure 1-69. - Magic-T with input to arm a. Unfortunately, when a signal is applied to any arm of a magic-T, the flow of energy in the output arms is affected by reflections. Reflections are caused by impedance mismatching at the junctions. These reflections are the cause of the two major disadvantages of' the magic-T. First, the reflections represent a power loss since all the energy fed into the junction does not reach the load which the arms feed. Second, the reflections produce standing waves that can result in internal arching. Thus the maximum power a magic-T can handle is greatly reduced. Reflections can be reduced by using some means of' impedance matching that does not destroy the shape of' the junctions. One method is shown in figure 1-70. A post is used to match the H plane, and an iris is used to match the E plane. Even though this method reduces reflections, it lowers the power-handling capability even further. Figure 1-70. - Magic-T impedance matching. HYBRID RING. - A type of hybrid junction that overcomes the power limitation of the magic-T is the hybrid ring, also called a RAT RACE. The hybrid ring, illustrated in figure 1-71, view (A), is actually a modification of the magic-T. It is constructed of' rectangular waveguides molded into a circular pattern. The arms are joined to the circular waveguide to form E-type T junctions. View (B) shows, in wavelengths, the dimensions required for a hybrid ring to operate properly. Figure 1-71A. - Hybrid ring with wavelength measurements. Figure 1-71B. - Hybrid ring with wavelength measurements. The hybrid ring is used primarily in high-powered radar and communications systems to perform two functions. During the transmit period, the hybrid ring couples microwave energy from the transmitter to the antenna and allows no energy to reach the receiver. During the receive cycle, the hybrid ring couples energy from the antenna to the receiver and allows no energy to reach the transmitter. Any device that performs both of these functions is called a DUPLEXER. A duplexer permits a system to use the same antenna for both transmitting and receiving. Since the only common application of the hybrid ring is as a duplexer, the details of hybrid ring operation will be explained in later NEETS modules concerning duplexers. Q.53 What are the two basic types of T junctions? Q.54 Why is the H-type T junction so named? Q.55 The magic-T is composed of what two basic types of T junctions? Q.56 What are the primary disadvantages of the magic-T? Q.57 What type of junctions are formed where the arms of a hybrid ring meet the main ring? Q.58 Hybrid rings are used primarily for what purpose?