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Waveguide Junctions

You may have assumed that when energy traveling down a waveguide reaches a junction, it simply divides and follows the junction. This is not strictly true. Different types of junctions affect the energy in different ways. Since waveguide junctions are used extensively in most systems, you need to understand the basic operating principles of those most commonly used.

The T JUNCTION is the most simple of the commonly used waveguide junctions. T junctions are divided into two basic types, the E-TYPE and the H-TYPE. HYBRID JUNCTIONS are more complicated developments of the basic T junctions. The MAGIC-T and the HYBRID RING are the two most commonly used hybrid junctions.

E-TYPE T JUNCTION. - An E-type T junction is illustrated in figure 1-64, view (A).It is called an E-type T junction because the junction arm extends from the main waveguide in the same direction as the E field in the waveguide.

Figure 1-64, view (B), illustrates cross-sectional views of the E-type T junction with inputs fed into the various arms. For simplicity, the magnetic lines that are always present with an electric field have been omitted. In view (K), the input is fed into arm b and the outputs are taken from the a and c arms. When the E field arrives between points 1 and 2, point 1 becomes positive and point 2 becomes negative. The positive charge at point 1 then induces a negative charge on the wall at point 3. The negative charge at point 2 induces a positive charge at point 4. These charges cause the fields to form 180 degrees out of phase in the main waveguide; therefore, the outputs will be 180 degrees out of phase with each other. In view (L), two in-phase inputs of equal amplitude are fed into the a and c arms. The signals at points 1 and 2 have the same phase and amplitude. No difference of potential exists across the entrance to the b arm, and no energy will be coupled out. However, when the two signals fed into the a and c arms are 180 degrees out of phase, as shown in view (M), points 1 and 2 have a difference of potential. This difference of potential induces an E field from point 1 to point 2 in the b arm, and energy is coupled out of this arm. Views (N) and (P) illustrate two methods of obtaining two outputs with only one input.

Figure 1-64. - E fields in an E-type T junction.

H-TYPE T JUNCTION. - An H-type T junction is illustrated in figure 1-65, view (A).

It is called an H-type T junction because the long axis of the "b" arm is parallel to the plane of the magnetic lines of force in the waveguide. Again, for simplicity, only the E lines are shown in this figure. Each X indicates an E line moving away from the observer. Each dot indicates an E line is moving toward the observer.

In view (1) of figure 1-65, view (B),the signal is fed into arm b and in-phase outputs are obtained from the a and c arms. In view (2), in-phase signals are fed into arms a and c and the output signal is obtained from the b arm because the fields add at the junction and induce E lines into the b arm. If 180-degree-out-of-phase signals are fed into arms a and c, as shown in view (3), no output is obtained from the b arm because the opposing fields cancel at the junction. If a signal is fed into the a arm, as shown in view (4), outputs will be obtained from the b and c arms. The reverse is also true. If a signal is fed into the c arm, outputs will be obtained from the a and b arms.

Figure 1-65A. - E fields in an H-type junction. H-TYPE T JUNCTION

Figure 1-65B. - E fields in an H-type junction. FIELDS FOR VARIOUS INPUTS

MAGIC-T HYBRID JUNCTION. - A simplified version of the magic-T hybrid junction is shown in figure 1-66. The magic-T is a combination of the H-type and E-type T junctions. The most common application of this type of junction is as the mixer section for microwave radar receivers. Its operation as a mixer will be discussed in later NEETS modules . At present, only the fields within the magic-T junction will be discussed.

Figure 1-66. - Magic-T hybrid junction.




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