Quantcast hydrogen bubbles rise to the surface of the electrolyte and escape into the air, some remain on the surface of the anode. If enough bubbles remain around the anode, the bubbles form a barrier that increases internal resistance."> Polarization of the cell

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    The chemical action that occurs in the cell while the current is flowing causes hydrogen bubbles to form on the surface of the anode. This action is called POLARIZATION. Some hydrogen bubbles rise to the surface of the electrolyte and escape into the air, some remain on the surface of the anode. If enough bubbles remain around the anode, the bubbles form a barrier that increases internal resistance. When the internal resistance of the cell increases, the output current is decreased and the voltage of the cell also decreases.

    A cell that is heavily polarized has no useful output. There are several methods to prevent polarization or to depolarize the cell.

    One method uses a vent on the cell to permit the hydrogen to escape into the air. A disadvantage of this method is that hydrogen is not available to reform into the electrolyte during recharging. This problem is solved by adding water to the electrolyte, such as in an automobile battery. A second method is to use material that is rich in oxygen, such as manganese dioxide, which supplies free oxygen to combine with the hydrogen and form water.

    A third method is to use a material that will absorb the hydrogen, such as calcium. The calcium releases hydrogen during the charging process. All three methods remove enough hydrogen so that the cell is practically free from polarization.


    When the external circuit is removed, the current ceases to flow, and, theoretically, all chemical action within the cell stops. However, commercial zinc contains many impurities, such as iron, carbon, lead, and arsenic. These impurities form many small electrical cells within the zinc electrode in which current flows between the zinc and its impurities. Thus, the chemical action continues even though the cell itself is not connected to a load.

    Local action may be prevented by using pure zinc (which is not practical), by coating the zinc with mercury, or by adding a small percentage of mercury to the zinc during the manufacturing process. The treatment of the zinc with mercury is called amalgamating (mixing) the zinc. Since mercury is many times heavier than an equal volume of water, small particles of impurities weighing less than mercury will float to the surface of the mercury. The removal of these impurities from the zinc prevents local action. The mercury is not readily acted upon by the acid. When the cell is delivering current to a load, the mercury continues to act on the impurities in the zinc. This causes the impurities to leave the surface of the zinc electrode and float to the surface of the mercury. This process greatly increases the storage life of the cell.

Q14.Describe three ways to prevent polarization.   Test Yourself
Q15.Describe local action.   Test Yourself


    The development of new and different types of cells in the past decade has been so rapid that it is virtually impossible to have a complete knowledge of all the various types. A few recent developments are the silver-zinc, nickel-zinc, nickel-cadmium, silver-cadmium, organic and inorganic lithium, and mercury cells.


    The dry cell is the most popular type of primary cell. It is ideal for simple applications where an inexpensive and noncritical source of electricity is all that is needed.

    The dry cell is not actually dry. The electrolyte is not in a liquid state, but is a moist paste. If it should become totally dry, it would no longer be able to transform chemical energy to electrical energy.

    The construction of a common type of dry cell is shown in figure 2-4. These dry cells are also referred to as Leclanche' cells. The internal parts of the cell are located in a cylindrical zinc container. This zinc container serves as the negative electrode (cathode) of the cell. The container is lined with a nonconducting material, such as blotting paper, to separate the zinc from the paste. A carbon electrode is located in the center, and it serves as the positive terminal (anode) of the cell. The paste is a mixture of several substances such as ammonium chloride, powdered coke, ground carbon, manganese dioxide, zinc chloride, graphite, and water.

Figure 2-4. - Cutaway view of the general-purpose dry cell.

    This paste, which is packed in the space between the anode and the blotting paper, also serves to hold the anode rigid in the center of the cell. When the paste is packed in the cell, a small space is left at the top for expansion of the electrolytic paste caused by the depolarization action. The cell is then sealed with a cardboard or plastic seal.

    Since the zinc container is the cathode, it must be protected with some insulating material to be electrically isolated. Therefore, it is common practice for the manufacturer to enclose the cells in cardboard and metal containers.

    The dry cell (fig. 2-4) is basically the same as the simple voltaic cell (wet cell) described earlier, as far as its internal chemical action is concerned. The action of the water and the ammonium chloride in the paste, together with the zinc and carbon electrodes, produces the voltage of the cell. Manganese dioxide is added to reduce polarization when current flows and zinc chloride reduces local action when the cell is not being used.

    A cell that is not being used (sitting on the shelf) will gradually deteriorate because of slow internal chemical changes (local action). This deterioration is usually very slow if cells are properly stored. If unused cells are stored in a cool place, their shelf life will be greatly preserved. Therefore, to minimize deterioration, they should be stored in refrigerated spaces.

    The blotting paper (paste-coated pulpboard separator) serves two purposes - (1) it keeps the paste from making actual contact with the zinc container and (2) it permits the electrolyte from the paste to filter through to the zinc slowly. The cell is sealed at the top to keep air from entering and drying the electrolyte. Care should be taken to prevent breaking this seal.

Q16.What serves as the cathode of a dry cell?   Test Yourself
Q17.Why is a dry cell called a DRY cell?   Test Yourself
Q18.What does the term "shelf life" mean?   Test Yourself

Mercuric-Oxide Zinc Cell

    The mercuric-oxide zinc cell (mercury cell) is a primary cell that was developed during World War II. Two important assets of the mercury cell are its ability to produce current for a long period of time and a long shelf life when compared to the dry cell shown in figure 2-4.The mercury cell also has a very stable output voltage and is a power source that can be made in a small physical size.

    With the birth of the space program and the development of small transceivers and miniaturized equipment, a power source of small size was needed. Such equipment requires a small cell which is capable of delivering maximum electrical energy at a constant discharge voltage. The mercury cell, which is one of the smallest cells, meets these requirements.
Present mercury cells are manufactured in three basic types as shown in figure 2-5. The wound-anode type, shown in figure 2-5 view A, has an anode composed of a corrugated zinc strip with a paper absorbent. The zinc is mixed with mercury, and the paper is soaked in the electrolyte which causes it to swell and press against the zinc and make positive contact. This process ensures that the electrolyte makes contact with the anode.

Figure 2-5. - Mercury cells.

    In the pressed-powder cells, shown in figure 2-5 views B and C, the zinc powder for the anode is mixed prior to being pressed into shape. The absorbent shown in the figure is paper soaked in the electrolyte. The space between the inner and outer containers provides passage for any gas generated by an improper chemical balance or impurities present within the cell.

    If the anode and cathode of a cell are connected together without a load, a SHORT CIRCUIT condition exists. Short circuits (shorts) can be very dangerous. They cause excessive heat, pressure, and current flow which may cause serious damage to the cell or be a safety hazard to personnel.

    Do not short the mercury cell. Shorted mercury cells have exploded with considerable force.


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