CHAPTER 11 FIELD KITCHENS
At some point you may be assigned to an amphibious or naval mobile construction battalion and accompany it ashore as a member of a landing party. A landing party usually consists of 100 personnel and has 2 or 3 MSs assigned. As an MS, you should be prepared to provide food for those troops you accompany. You also will probably become involved in locating the proper site for the field kitchen and in its construction. This chapter will present to you the skills needed to accomplish the following:
• Select field kitchen sites
• Plan a layout of field kitchen facilities
• Unpack and set up kitchen tents
• Unload and arrange field kitchen equipment in the kitchen tents
• Clean and reload field kitchen equipment
• Pack and store field kitchen tents
FIELD KITCHEN SIGHT SELECTION AND LAYOUT CHARACTERISTICS Naturally, you will want the best available site for your field kitchen. The general area in which personnel will be fed is normally determined by the shore party commander. You, the MS, may have to recommend the selection of a particular site.
PLANNING THE LOCATION
There are several details to look for when you pick a site. figure 11- lists the characteristics of a good field site. It also explains why these characteristics are important.
Type of Terrain
If there is danger of bombing or other enemy action, select a location that provides good natural cover and is well shielded from observation.
High, dry ground near a slope that provides good drainage is desirable. A good water supply should be nearby, with an access road for kitchen traffic only, if possible. Your galley should be at the proper distance away from the heads.
Figure 11-1.-Characteristics of a good field site.
You should regard all water in the field as contaminated until bacterial analysis reveals it to be potable. It may become contaminated during distribution and storage. Consider all untreated water unsafe until a medical representative approves it for use. During the initial phase of amphibious operations, each unit may carry its own water or depend on a local supply. The local supply of water must be disinfected and placed in sterilized lyster bags (36-gallon canvas bag) or canteens.
The responsibility for the adequacy and safety of the water under these conditions normally falls largely on the unit medical officer. However, you should be familiar with chapter 5, "Water Supply Ashore," of the Manual of Naval Preventive Medicine, NAVMED P-5010. This chapter discusses in detail the following: water supplies, sources of water, water analysis, standards and purification of water, and the Standard organization and Regulations of the U.S. Navy, OPNAVINST 3120.32, in case medical personnel are not available. Remember that none of the methods of disinfecting water contained in these publications destroys radioactive substances or chemical poisons.
GROUNDWATER.- Groundwater from springs or wells is usually better than surface water. When you use water from a ground source, be sure it is a safe 100 feet or more from sources of contamination. Some sources of contamination are heads, septic tanks, and cesspools. In limestone ground formations, the distance may need to be much greater. Wells and springs should be constructed to exclude surface water and high-groundwater infiltration. Well and spring sites should not be subject to flooding.
SURFACE WATER.- Surface water is water from rivers, lakes, streams, and ponds. When you must use water from a surface source, take it from a point well above and away from sewer outlets. Avoid places where refuse drains into a river, stream, or lake, and oily areas where wastes and drainage may make the water unpalatable or unfit for use. Always choose the clearest water possible; the clearer the water, the easier it is to disinfect and the better its appearance will be. Clearness, however, is no guarantee of safety. All surface water must be treated.
Clean water receptacles daily with boiling water and rinse with a solution of potassium permanganate (one-third of a teaspoonful of potassium permanganate
Figure 11-2.-Rear area layout for field feeding.
to 1 gallon of water). You also can use a solution of chlorinated lime and water for this purpose. The formula is 1 part lime to 1,000 parts water. PLANNING THE KITCHEN LAYOUT
A kitchen layout shows you where to place waste disposal facilities. It shows a smooth traffic flow through the serving line and mess kit laundry line. A smooth traffic flow allows the troops to get away from the area easily if they must move fast.
Make sure all latrines are at least 100 feet from the nearest natural water source and at least 100 yards from foodservice areas.