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Roman and Arabic numerals are used to indicate chords and doublings. Roman numerals are used for analysis and to indicate chord roots. The Roman numeral will correspond to the scale degree on which the triad is built. An upper case Roman numeral indicates a major triad (unless qualified). A lower case Roman numeral indicates a minor triad (unless qualified). A plus sign (+) qualifies an upper case Roman numeral to indicate an augmented triad. A circle (o) qualifies a lower case Roman numeral to indicate a diminished triad. All other alterations or additions are indicated with chromatic signs and Arabic numerals.

FIGURE 5.4: Analysis
Arabic numerals are used for figured bass or figuring and indicate notes above the Bass voice, primarily as simple intervals. The complete figuring for a root position triad with the:

When no Arabic numerals appear, a root doubled is . This is often abbreviated

root position triad is intended.

FIGURE 5.5: Doubled Root Figuring

FIGURE 5.6: Double Fifth Figuring

FIGURE 5.7: Doubled Third Figuring

FIGURE 5.8: Tripled Root Figuring
The Arabic numerals of figured bass refer to diatonic intervals by name. A 5 indicates a diatonic fifth regardless of quality. When accidentals are used, such as with the dominant chord in minor, the same accidental must appear in the figured bass. This is done by writing the accidental to the left of the Arabic numeral. An accidental may be used without an Arabic numeral to indicate an alteration of the note a third above the Bass note. This applies regardless of chord position. A slash through a number indicates that the corresponding note is raised a half step. An accidental in indicated in the Bass voice is not normally figured bass.

FIGURES 5.9: Accidentals and Figured Bass


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