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A chromatic passing tone fills the interval between two chord tones a major second apart and occurs in a weak rhythmic position.

FIGURE 8.5: Chromatic Passing Tone
Cross Relation
Cross Relation
occurs when a chromatically altered note in one voice is next to the same diatonic scale degree in a different voice. It should be avoided except when using the upper tetrachord of the melodic minor scale.

FIGURE 8.6: Cross Relation
Double passing tones
fill the interval of a perfect fourth between two chord tones and occur in a weak rhythmic position. In a minor key, the melodic minor scale is used for double passing tones over the tonic chord.

FIGURE 8.7: Double Passing Tone


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