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A chromatically altered passing tone fills the interval of a third between two chord tones and uses an accidental. It appears in either a weak or strong rhythmic position. Chromatically altered passing tones occur most often in the ascending melodic minor over the dominant chord.

FIGURE 8.8: Chromatically Altered Passing Tone Over the Dominant Chord
In major keys, the subtonic scale degree, borrowed from the parallel minor, passes to the submediant scale degree.

FIGURE 8.9: Subtonic as Chromatically Altered Passing Tone
An upper auxiliary is a non-harmonic tone a step above two chord tones of the same pitch and appears in a weak rhythmic position.

FIGURE 8.10: Upper Auxiliary


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