During the design of equipment that requires fluid power, many factors are considered inselecting the type of system to be used—hydraulic, pneumatic, or a combination of the two. Some of the factors are required speed and accuracy of operation, surrounding atmospheric conditions, economic conditions, availability of replacement fluid, required pressure level, operating temperature range, contamination possibilities, cost of transmission lines, limitations of the equipment, lubricity, safety to the operators, and expected service life of the equipment.
After the type of system has been selected,many of these same factors must be considered in selecting the fluid for the system. This chapter is devoted to hydraulic fluids. Included in it are sections on the properties and characteristics desired of hydraulic fluids; types of hydraulic fluids; hazards and safety precautions for working with, handling, and disposing of hydraulic liquids; types and control of contamination; and sampling.
If fluidity (the physical property of a substancethat enables it to flow) and incompressibility were the only properties required, any liquid not too thick might be used in a hydraulic system. However, a satisfactory liquid for a particular system must possess a number of other properties. The most important properties and some characteristics are discussed in the following paragraphs.
Viscosity is one of the most importantproperties of hydraulic fluids. It is a measure of a fluid’s resistance to flow. A liquid, such as gasoline, which flows easily has a low viscosity; and a liquid, such as tar, which flows slowly has a high viscosity. The viscosity of a liquid is affected by changes in temperature and pressure. As the temperature of a liquid increases, its viscosity decreases. That is, a liquid flows more easily when it is hot than when it is cold. The viscosity of a liquid increases as the pressure on the liquid increases.
A satisfactory liquid for a hydraulic systemmust be thick enough to give a good seal at pumps, motors, valves, and so on. These components depend on close fits for creating and maintaining pressure. Any internal leakage through these clearances results in loss of pressure, instantaneous control, and pump efficiency. Leakage losses are greater with thinner liquids (low viscosity). A liquid that is too thin will also allow rapid wearing of moving parts, or of parts that operate under heavy loads. On the other hand, if the liquid is too thick (viscosity too high), the internal friction of the liquid will cause an increase in the liquid’s flow resistance through clearances of closely fitted parts, lines, and internal passages. This results in pressure drops throughout the system, sluggish operation of the equipment, and an increase in power consumption.
Measurement of Viscosity
Viscosity is normally determined by measuring the time required for a fixed volume of a fluid (at a given temperature) to flow through a calibrated orifice or capillary tube. The instruments used to measure the viscosity of a liquid are known as viscometers or viscosimeters. Several types of viscosimeters are in use today. The Saybolt viscometer, shown in figure 3-1, measures the time required, in seconds, for 60 milliliters of the tested fluid at 100°F to pass through a standard orifice. The time measured is used to express the fluid’s viscosity, in Saybolt universal seconds or Saybolt furol seconds. The glass capillary viscometers, shown in figure 3-2, are examples of the second type of viscometer used. These viscometers are used to measure kinematic viscosity. Like the Saybolt viscometer, the glass capillary measures the time in seconds required for the tested fluid to flow through the capillary. This time is multiplied by the temperature constant of the viscometer in use to provide the viscosity, expressed in centistrokes. The following formulas may be used to convert centistrokes (cSt units) to approximate Saybolt universal seconds (SUS units).
Figure 3-1.—Saybolt viscometer.
For SUS values between 32 and 100:
For SUS values greater than 100:
Although the viscometers discussed above are used in laboratories, there are other viscometers in the supply system that are available for local use. These viscometers can be used to test the viscosity of hydraulic fluids either prior to their being added to a system or periodically after they have been in an operating system for a while.
Figure 3-2.–Various styles of glass capillary viscometers.
Additional information on the various types of viscometers and their operation can be found in the Physical Measurements Training Manual, NAVAIR 17-35QAL-2.
The viscosity index (V.I.) of an oil is a number that indicates the effect of temperature changes on the viscosity of the oil. A low V.I. signifies a relatively large change of viscosity with changes of temperature. In other words, the oil becomes extremely thin at high temperatures and extremely thick at low temperatures. On the other hand, a high V.I. signifies relatively little change in viscosity over a wide temperature range. An ideal oil for most purposes is one that maintains a constant viscosity throughout temperature changes. The importance of the V.I. can be shown easily by considering automotive lubricants. An oil having a high V.I. resists excessive thickening when the engine is cold and, consequently, promotes rapid starting and prompt circulation; it resists excessive thinning when the motor is hot and thus provides full lubrication and prevents excessive oil consumption.
Another example of the importance of the V.I. is the need for a high V.I. hydraulic oil for military aircraft, since hydraulic control systems may be exposed to temperatures ranging from below –65°F at high altitudes to over 100°F on the ground. For the proper operation of the hydraulic control system, the hydraulic fluid must have a sufficiently high V.I. to perform its functions at the extremes of the expected temperature range. Liquids with a high viscosity have a greater resistance to heat than low viscosity liquids which have been derived from the same source. The average hydraulic liquid has a relatively low viscosity. Fortunately, there is a wide choice of liquids available for use in the viscosity range required of hydraulic liquids.
The V.I. of an oil may be determined if its viscosity at any two temperatures is known. Tables, based on a large number of tests, are issued by the American Society for Testing and Materials (ASTM). These tables permit calculation of the V.I. from known viscosities.