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You have just seen that a light beam is reflected and diffused when it falls onto a piece of white paper. If the light beam falls onto a piece of black paper, the black paper absorbs most of the light rays and very little light is reflected from the paper.

If the surface upon which the light beam falls is perfectly black, there is no reflection; that is, the light is totally absorbed. No matter what kind of surface light falls upon, some of the light is absorbed.


The transmission of light along optical fibers depends not only on the nature of light, but also on the structure of the optical fiber. Two methods are used to describe how light is transmitted along the optical fiber. The first method, ray theory, uses the concepts of light reflection and refraction. The second method, mode theory, treats light as electromagnetic waves. You must first understand the basic optical properties of the materials used to make optical fibers. These properties affect how light is transmitted through the fiber.

Q.13 Two methods describe how light propagates along an optical fiber. These methods define two theories of light propagation. What do we call these two theories?

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