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Multimode Fibers

As their name implies, multimode fibers propagate more than one mode. Multimode fibers can propagate over 100 modes. The number of modes propagated depends on the core size and numerical aperture (NA). As the core size and

NA increase, the number of modes increases. Typical values of fiber core size and NA are 50 to 100 μm and 0.20 to 0.29, respectively.

A large core size and a higher NA have several advantages. Light is launched into a multimode fiber with more ease. The higher NA and the larger core size make it easier to make fiber connections. During fiber splicing, core-to-core alignment becomes less critical. Another advantage is that multimode fibers permit the use of light-emitting diodes (LEDs). Single mode fibers typically must use laser diodes. LEDs are cheaper, less complex, and last longer. LEDs are preferred for most applications.

Multimode fibers also have some disadvantages. As the number of modes increases, the effect of modal dispersion increases. Modal dispersion (intermodal dispersion) means that modes arrive at the fiber end at slightly different times. This time difference causes the light pulse to spread. Modal dispersion affects system bandwidth. Fiber manufacturers adjust the core diameter, NA, and index profile properties of multimode fibers to maximize system bandwidth.

Q.35 The number of modes propagated in a multimode fiber depends on core size and numerical aperture (NA). If the core size and the NA decrease, will the number of modes propagated increase or decrease?
Q.36 Modal dispersion affects the bandwidth of multimode systems. It is essential to adjust what three fiber properties to maximize system bandwidth?

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