magnetic field, there is no appreciable change in flux - that is, the flux penetrates the nonmagnetic material. For example, a glass plate placed between the poles of a horseshoe magnet will have no appreciable effect on the field although glass itself is a good insulator in an electric circuit.">
There is no known INSULATOR for magnetic flux. If a nonmagnetic material is placed in a magnetic field, there is no appreciable change in flux - that is, the flux penetrates the nonmagnetic material. For example, a glass plate placed between the poles of a horseshoe magnet will have no appreciable effect on the field although glass itself is a good insulator in an electric circuit. If a magnetic material (for example, soft iron) is placed in a magnetic field, the flux may be redirected to take advantage of the greater permeability of the magnetic material, as shown in figure 1-17. Permeability, as discussed earlier, is the quality of a substance which determines the ease with which it can be magnetized.
The sensitive mechanisms of electric instruments and meters can be influenced by stray magnetic fields which will cause errors in their readings. Because instrument mechanisms cannot be insulated against magnetic flux, it is necessary to employ some means of directing the flux around the instrument. This is accomplished by placing a soft-iron case, called a MAGNETIC SCREEN or SHIELD, about the instrument. Because the flux is established more readily through the iron (even though the path is longer) than through the air inside the case, the instrument is effectively shielded, as shown by the watch and soft-iron shield in figure 1-18.
Because of the many uses of magnets, they are found in various shapes and sizes. However, magnets usually come under one of three general classifications: bar magnets, horseshoe magnets, or ring magnets.
The bar magnet is most often used in schools and laboratories for studying the properties and effects of magnetism. In the preceding material, the bar magnet proved very helpful in demonstrating magnetic effects.
Another type of magnet is the ring magnet, which is used for computer memory cores. A common application for a temporary ring magnet would be the shielding of electrical instruments.
The shape of the magnet most frequently used in electrical and electronic equipment is called the horseshoe magnet. A horseshoe magnet is similar to a bar magnet but is bent in the shape of a horseshoe. The horseshoe magnet provides much more magnetic strength than a bar magnet of the same size and material because of the closeness of the magnetic poles. The magnetic strength from one pole to the other is greatly increased due to the concentration of the magnetic field in a smaller area. Electrical measuring devices quite frequently use horseshoe-type magnets.
CARE OF MAGNETS
A piece of steel that has been magnetized can lose much of its magnetism by improper handling. If it is jarred or heated, there will be a disalignment of its domains resulting in the loss of some of its effective magnetism. Had this piece of steel formed the horseshoe magnet of a meter, the meter would no longer be operable or would give inaccurate readings. Therefore, care must be exercised when handling instruments containing magnets. Severe jarring or subjecting the instrument to high temperatures will damage the device.
A magnet may also become weakened from loss of flux. Thus when storing magnets, one should always try to avoid excess leakage of magnetic flux. A horseshoe magnet should always be stored with a keeper, a soft iron bar used to join the magnetic poles. By using the keeper while the magnet is being stored, the magnetic flux will continuously circulate through the magnet and not leak off into space.
When bar magnets are stored, the same principle must be remembered. Therefore, bar magnets should always be stored in pairs with a north pole and a south pole placed together. This provides a complete path for the magnetic flux without any flux leakage.
In the field of physical science, work must be defined as the PRODUCT OF FORCE AND DISPLACEMENT. That is, the force applied to move an object and the distance the object is moved are the factors of work performed.
It is important to notice that no work is accomplished unless the force applied causes a change in the position of a stationary object, or a change in the velocity of a moving object. A worker may tire by pushing against a heavy wooden crate, but unless the crate moves, no work will be accomplished.
In our study of energy and work, we must define energy as THE ABILITY TO DO WORK. In order to perform any kind of work, energy must be expended (converted from one form to another). Energy supplies the required force, or power, whenever any work is accomplished.
One form of energy is that which is contained by an object in motion. When a hammer is set in motion in the direction of a nail, it possesses energy of motion. As the hammer strikes the nail, the energy of motion is converted into work as the nail is driven into the wood. The distance the nail is driven into the wood depends on the velocity of the hammer at the time it strikes the nail. Energy contained by an object due to its motion is called KINETIC ENERGY. Assume that the hammer is suspended by a string in a position one meter above a nail. As a result of gravitational attraction, the hammer will experience a force pulling it downward. If the string is suddenly cut, the force of gravity will pull the hammer downward against the nail, driving it into the wood. While the hammer is suspended above the nail it has ability to do work because of its elevated position in the earth's gravitational field. Since energy is the ability to do work, the hammer contains energy.
Energy contained by an object due to its position is called POTENTIAL ENERGY. The amount of potential energy available is equal to the product of the force required to elevate the hammer and the height to which it is elevated.
Another example of potential energy is that contained in a tightly coiled spring. The amount of energy released when the spring unwinds depends on the amount of force required to wind the spring initially.