Quantcast circuitry in the system equipment to provide an acceptable input signal to the transmitter. More complex fiber optic transmitters are available that have some or all of the signal conditioning circuitry integrated into the package."> Fiber optic transmitter packages

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FIBER OPTIC TRANSMITTER PACKAGES

Fiber optic transmitters come in various sizes and shapes. The least complex fiber optic transmitters are typically packaged in transistor outline (TO) cans or hybrid microcircuit modules in dual inline packages (DIPs). These simple transmitters may require separate circuitry in the system equipment to provide an acceptable input signal to the transmitter. More complex fiber optic transmitters are available that have some or all of the signal conditioning circuitry integrated into the package. These transmitters typically are packaged in hybrid microcircuit modules in either DIP or butterfly lead packages, circuit cards, or complete stand-alone fiber optic converters. Stand-alone fiber optic converters and circuit cards generally contain sources in either TO cans or one of the hybrid microcircuit packages. For commercial applications, the most popular transmitter packages are the TO can and the DIP hybrid microcircuit.

FIBER OPTIC TRANSMITTER APPLICATIONS

Fiber optic transmitters can be classified into two categories: digital and analog. Digital transmitters produce two discrete optical power levels. These levels are essentially on and off with the exception that some light is emitted in the off state by some transmitters. Analog transmitters continuously vary the output optical power level as a function of the input electrical signal.

Digital Applications

Different types of fiber optic transmitters are used for different digital applications. For each specific application, the link data rate, transmission length, and operating environment influence the source type, center wavelength, spectral width, and package type chosen.

For low-data-rate applications, fiber optic transmitters generally use LEDs operating in either the 850-nm or 1300-nm window as their source. For the lowest data rates (0 to 20 megabits per second (Mbps)), sources tend to operate in the 850-nm window. For moderate data rates (50 to 200 Mbps), sources tend to operate in the 1300-nm window. Laser sources are almost never used in low-data-rate applications. Laser sources are only used when extremely high transmitter output powers are required in the application. The packages found in low-data-rate applications include all of the package types discussed earlier.

For high-data-rate applications, most fiber optic transmitters use laser diodes as sources. The sources typically operate in either the 1300-nm or 1550-nm windows. Most high-data-rate applications use LDs as the optical source and operate in the 1300-nm region. Almost all 1550-nm systems use an LD as the optical source. 1550-nm transmitters are usually only used in the extremely long distance high-data-rate applications (undersea links, etc.). High-data-rate transmitters are generally hybrid microcircuit modules or complete circuit cards. Almost all high-data-rate transmitters contain power control circuitry. Depending upon the application, high-data-rate transmitters may contain TE coolers.

Q.24 List five common fiber optic transmitter packages.
Q.25 What type of source is typically used in low-data-rate digital applications?
Q.26 Why would a laser diode be used in a low-data-rate digital application?
Q.27 What type of source is generally used in high-data-rate digital applications?

Analog Applications

Different types of fiber optic transmitters are also used for different analog applications. For each specific application, analog signal type, transmission length, and operating environment influence the source type, center wavelength, spectral width, and package type chosen.

For low-frequency applications, analog fiber optic transmitters generally use LEDs operating in either the 850-nm or 1300-nm window. Typical low frequency applications are analog audio and single channel video systems. For these systems, sources tend to operate in the 850-nm window. For moderate frequency applications, sources tend to operate in the 1300-nm window. These types of systems include multi-channel analog audio and video systems as well as frequency modulated (FM) systems. Laser sources are almost never used in low- or moderate-frequency analog applications. The main reason for this is the added circuit complexity that laser sources require. Laser sources are only used if extremely high transmitter output powers are required in the application. Most low-frequency analog transmitters are hybrid microcircuit modules, circuit cards, or stand-alone boxes.

For high-frequency applications, analog fiber optic transmitters use laser diodes as sources. Typical high frequency applications are cable television trunk line and raw radar remoting applications. The LDs typically operate in either the 1300-nm or 1550-nm windows. 1550-nm transmitters are typically used in cable television trunk line applications. Other applications may use either 1300-nm or 1550-nm LDs. High frequency transmitters are predominately circuit cards, but some hybrid microcircuit modules are also used. All high frequency analog transmitters contain TE coolers as well as linearization and power control circuitry.

Q.28 Why are LEDs preferred over laser diodes for low- and moderate-frequency analog applications?




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