SEMICONDUCTOR MATERIAL AND DEVICE OPERATING PRINCIPLES
Understanding optical emission in semiconductor lasers and LEDs requires knowledge of semiconductor material and device properties. Providing a complete description of semiconductor properties is beyond the scope of this introductory manual. In this chapter we only discuss the general properties of semiconductor LEDs and LDs.
Semiconductor sources are diodes, with all of the characteristics typical of diodes. However, their construction includes a special layer, called the active layer, which emits photons (light particles) when a current passes through the layer. The particular properties of the semiconductor are determined by the materials used and the layering of the materials within the semiconductor. Silicon (Si) and gallium arsenide (GaAs) are the two most common semiconductor materials used in electronic and electro-optic devices. In some cases other elements, such as aluminum (Al), indium (In) and phosphorus (P), are added to the base semiconductor material to modify the semiconductor properties. These elements are called dopants.
Current flowing through a semiconductor optical source causes it to produce light. An in-depth description of either of the two processes by which this occurs is beyond the scope of this module. However, we discuss elementary descriptions in the following paragraphs.
LEDs generally produce light through spontaneous emission when a current is passed through them. Spontaneous emission is the random generation of photons within the active layer of the LED. The emitted photons move in random directions. Only a certain percentage of the photons exit the semiconductor and are coupled into the fiber. Many of the photons are absorbed by the LED materials and the energy dissipated as heat.
This process causes the light output from an LED to be incoherent, have a broad spectral width, and have a wide output pattern.
Laser diodes are much more complex than LEDs. Laser is an acronym for light amplification by the stimulated emission of radiation. Laser diodes produce light through stimulated emission when a current is passed through them. Stimulated emission describes how light is produced in any type of laser. In the laser diode, photons, initially produced by spontaneous emission interact with the laser material to produce additional photons. This process occurs within the active area of the diode called the laser cavity. The process does not affect the original photon. The stimulated photon has many of the same properties (wavelength, direction, phase) as the original photon.
As with the LED, not all of the photons produced are emitted from the laser diode. Some of the photons are absorbed and the energy dissipated as heat. The emission process and the physical characteristics of the diode cause the light output to be coherent, have a narrow spectral width, and have a narrow output pattern.
It is important to note that in both LED and laser diodes all of the electrical energy is not converted into optical energy. A substantial portion is converted to heat. Different LED and laser diode structures convert differing amounts of electrical energy into optical energy.
Q.8 What are the two most common semiconductor materials used in electronic and