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Armature Reaction - Page 16e

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ARMATURE REACTION

You will remember that the subject of armature reaction was covered in the previous chapter on dc generators. The reasons for armature reaction and the methods of compensating for its effects are basically the same for dc motors as for dc generators.

Figure 2-9 reiterates for you the distorting effect that the armature field has on the flux between the pole pieces. Notice, however, that the effect has shifted the neutral plane backward, against the direction of rotation. This is different from a dc generator, where the neutral plane shifted forward in the direction of rotation.

Figure 2-9. - Armature reaction.

32NE0427.GIF (15126 bytes)

As before, the brushes must be shifted to the new neutral plane. As shown in figure 2-9, the shift is counterclockwise. Again, the proper location is reached when there is no sparking from the brushes.

Q.14 Armature reaction in a dc motor causes a shift of the neutral plane in which direction? answer.gif (214 bytes)

Compensating windings and interpoles, two more "old" subjects, cancel armature reaction in dc motors. Shifting brushes reduces sparking, but it also makes the field less effective. Canceling armature reaction eliminates the need to shift brushes in the first place.

Compensating windings and interpoles are as important in motors as they are in generators. Compensating windings are relatively expensive; therefore, most large dc motors depend on interpoles to correct armature reaction. Compensating windings are the same in motors as they are in generators. Interpoles, however, are slightly different. The difference is that in a generator the interpole has the same polarity as the main pole AHEAD of it in the direction of rotation.

In a motor the interpole has the same polarity as the main pole FOLLOWING it.

The interpole coil in a motor is connected to carry the armature current the same as in a generator. As the load varies, the interpole flux varies, and commutation is automatically corrected as the load changes. It is not necessary to shift the brushes when there is an increase or decrease in load.

The brushes are located on the no-load neutral plane. They remain in that position for all conditions of load.

Q.15 What current flows in the interpole windings? answer.gif (214 bytes)

ARMATURE REACTION

You will remember that the subject of armature reaction was covered in the previous chapter on dc generators. The reasons for armature reaction and the methods of compensating for its effects are basically the same for dc motors as for dc generators.

Figure 2-9 reiterates for you the distorting effect that the armature field has on the flux between the pole pieces. Notice, however, that the effect has shifted the neutral plane backward, against the direction of rotation. This is different from a dc generator, where the neutral plane shifted forward in the direction of rotation.

Figure 2-9. - Armature reaction.

32NE0427.GIF (15126 bytes)

As before, the brushes must be shifted to the new neutral plane. As shown in figure 2-9, the shift is counterclockwise. Again, the proper location is reached when there is no sparking from the brushes.

Q.14 Armature reaction in a dc motor causes a shift of the neutral plane in which direction? answer.gif (214 bytes)

Compensating windings and interpoles, two more "old" subjects, cancel armature reaction in dc motors. Shifting brushes reduces sparking, but it also makes the field less effective. Canceling armature reaction eliminates the need to shift brushes in the first place.

Compensating windings and interpoles are as important in motors as they are in generators. Compensating windings are relatively expensive; therefore, most large dc motors depend on interpoles to correct armature reaction. Compensating windings are the same in motors as they are in generators. Interpoles, however, are slightly different. The difference is that in a generator the interpole has the same polarity as the main pole AHEAD of it in the direction of rotation.

In a motor the interpole has the same polarity as the main pole FOLLOWING it.

The interpole coil in a motor is connected to carry the armature current the same as in a generator. As the load varies, the interpole flux varies, and commutation is automatically corrected as the load changes. It is not necessary to shift the brushes when there is an increase or decrease in load.

The brushes are located on the no-load neutral plane. They remain in that position for all conditions of load.

Q.15 What current flows in the interpole windings? answer.gif (214 bytes)




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