wire sizes, refer to the proper publications for specific aircraft. Only AWG wire sizes are used in the following discussion.">
The most common method for measuring wire size in the Navy is by using the American Wire Gauge (AWG). An exception is aircraft wiring, which varies slightly in size and flexibility from AWG standards. For information concerning aircraft wire sizes, refer to the proper publications for specific aircraft. Only AWG wire sizes are used in the following discussion. Wire is manufactured in sizes numbered according to the AWG tables. The various wires (solid or stranded) and the material they are made from (copper, aluminum, and so forth) are published by the National Bureau of Standards.
An AWG table for copper wire is shown at table 1-2.
The wire diameters become smaller as the gauge numbers become larger. Numbers are rounded off for convenience but are accurate for practical application. The largest wire size shown in the table is 0000 (read "4 naught"), and the smallest is number 40. Larger and smaller sizes are manufactured, but are not commonly used by the Navy. AWG tables show the diameter in mils, circular mil area, and area in square inches of AWG wire sizes. They also show the resistance (ohms) per thousand feet and per mile of wire sizes at specific temperatures. The last column shows the weight of the wire per thousand feet. An example of the use of table 1-2 is as follows.
Table 1-2. - Standard Solid Copper (American Wire Gauge)
Problem: You are required to run 2,000 feet of AWG 20 solid copper wire for a new piece of equipment. The temperature where the wire is to be run is 25°C (77°F). How much resistance will the wire offer to current flow?
Solution: Under the gauge number column, find size AWG 20. Now read across the columns until you reach the "ohms per 1,000 feet for 25°C (77°F)" column. You will find that the wire will offer 10.4 ohms of resistance to current flow. Since we are using 2,000 feet of wire, multiply by 2. 10.4 ohms X 2 = 20.8 ohms
An American Standard Wire Gauge (figure 1-4)
is used to measure wires ranging in size from number 0 to number 36. To use this gauge, insert the wire to be measured into the smallest slot that will just accommodate the bare wire. The gauge number on that slot indicates the wire size. The front part of the slot has parallel sides, and this is where the wire measurement is taken. It should not be confused with the larger semicircular opening at the rear of the slot. The rear opening simply permits the free movement of the wire all the way through the slot.
Figure 1-4. - Wire gauge.
Q.9 Using table 1-2, determine the resistance of 1,500 feet of AWG 20 wire at 25°C.
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