magnetic field of the electromagnet increases as current through the coil increases.">
MAGNETIC TRIP ELEMENT
A magnetic trip element circuit breaker uses an electromagnet in series with the circuit load as in figure 2-20. With normal current, the electromagnet will not have enough attraction to the trip bar to move it, and the contacts will remain closed as shown in figure 2-20, view A. The strength of the magnetic field of the electromagnet increases as current through the coil increases. As soon as the current in the circuit becomes large enough, the trip bar is pulled toward the magnetic element (electromagnet), the contacts are opened, and the current stops, as shown in figure 2-20, view B.
Figure 2-20. - Magnetic trip element action; Closed contacts;
The amount of current needed to trip the circuit breaker depends on the size of the gap between the trip bar and the magnetic element. On some circuit breakers, this gap (and therefore the trip current) is adjustable.
THERMAL-MAGNETIC TRIP ELEMENT
The thermal trip element circuit breaker, like a delay fuse, will protect a circuit against a small overload that continues for a long time.
The larger the overload, the faster the circuit breaker will trip. The thermal element will also protect the circuit against temperature increases. A magnetic circuit breaker will trip instantly when the preset current is present. In some applications, both types of protection are desired. Rather than use two separate circuit breakers, a single trip element combining thermal and magnetic trip elements is used. A thermal-magnetic trip element is shown in figure 2-21.
Figure 2-21. - Thermal-magnetic element action:
In the thermal-magnetic trip element circuit breaker, a magnetic element (electromagnet) is connected in series with the circuit load, and a bimetallic element is heated by the load current. With normal circuit current, the bimetallic element does not bend, and the magnetic element does not attract the trip bar, as shown in figure 2-21, view A.
If the temperature or current increases over a sustained period of time, the bimetallic element will bend, push the trip bar and release the latch. The circuit breaker will trip as shown in figure 2-21, view B.
If the current suddenly or rapidly increases enough, the magnetic element will attract the trip bar, release the latch, and the circuit breaker will trip, as shown in figure 2-21, view C. (This circuit breaker has tripped even though the thermal element has not had time to react to the increased current.)
Q.30 What are the five main components of a circuit breaker?
Q.31 What are the three types of circuit breaker trip elements?
Q.32 How does each type of trip element react to an overload?
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