transmission line. Therefore, special devices must be used to put energy into a waveguide at one end and remove it from the other end. The three devices used to inject or remove energy from waveguides are PROBES, LOOPS, and SLOTS. Slots may also be called APERTURES or WINDOWS. ">
Waveguide Input/Output Methods
A waveguide, as explained earlier in this chapter, operates differently from an ordinary transmission line. Therefore, special devices must be used to put energy into a waveguide at one end and remove it from the other end.
The three devices used to inject or remove energy from waveguides are PROBES, LOOPS, and SLOTS. Slots may also be called APERTURES or WINDOWS.
As previously discussed, when a small probe is inserted into a waveguide and supplied with microwave energy, it acts as a quarter-wave antenna. Current flows in the probe and sets up an E field such as the one shown in figure 1-39, view (A). The E lines detach themselves from the probe. When the probe is located at the point of highest efficiency, the E lines set up an E field of considerable intensity.
Figure 1-39A. - Probe coupling in a rectangular waveguide.
Figure 1-39B. - Probe coupling in a rectangular waveguide.
Figure 1-39C. - Probe coupling in a rectangular waveguide.
Figure 1-39D. - Probe coupling in a rectangular waveguide.
The most efficient place to locate the probe is in the center of the "a" wall, parallel to the "b" wall, and one quarter-wavelength from the shorted end of the waveguide, as shown in figure 1-39, views (B) and (C). This is the point at which the E field is maximum in the dominant mode. Therefore, energy transfer (coupling) is maximum at this point. Note that the quarter-wavelength spacing is at the frequency required to propagate the dominant mode.
In many applications a lesser degree of energy transfer, called loose coupling, is desirable. The amount of energy transfer can be reduced by decreasing the length of the probe, by moving it out of the center of the E field, or by shielding it. Where the degree of coupling must be varied frequently, the probe is made retractable so the length can be easily changed.
The size and shape of the probe determines its frequency, bandwidth, and power-handling capability. As the diameter of a probe increases, the bandwidth increases. A probe similar in shape to a door knob is capable of handling much higher power and a larger bandwidth than a conventional probe. The greater power-handling capability is directly related to the increased surface area. Two examples of broad-bandwidth probes are illustrated in figure 1-39, view (D). Removal of energy from a waveguide is simply a reversal of the injection process using the same type of probe.
Another way of injecting energy into a waveguide is by setting up an H field in the waveguide. This can be accomplished by inserting a small loop which carries a high current into the waveguide, as shown in figure 1-40, view (A). A magnetic field builds up around the loop and expands to fit the waveguide, as shown in view (B). If the frequency of the current in the loop is within the bandwidth of the waveguide, energy will be transferred to the waveguide.
For the most efficient coupling to the waveguide, the loop is inserted at one of several points where the magnetic field will be of greatest strength. Four of those points are shown in figure 1-40, view (C).
Figure 1-40A. - Loop coupling in a rectangular waveguide.
Figure 1-40B. - Loop coupling in a rectangular waveguide.
Figure 1-40C. - Loop coupling in a rectangular waveguide.
When less efficient coupling is desired, you can rotate or move the loop until it encircles a smaller number of H lines. When the diameter of the loop is increased, its power-handling capability also increases. The bandwidth can be increased by increasing the size of the wire used to make the loop.
When a loop is introduced into a waveguide in which an H field is present, a current is induced in the loop. When this condition exists, energy is removed from the waveguide.
Slots or apertures are sometimes used when very loose (inefficient) coupling is desired, as shown in figure 1-41. In this method energy enters through a small slot in the waveguide and the E field expands into the waveguide. The E lines expand first across the slot and then across the interior of the waveguide.
Minimum reflections occur when energy is injected or removed if the size of the slot is properly proportioned to the frequency of the energy.
Figure 1-41. - Slot coupling in a waveguide.
After learning how energy is coupled into and out of a waveguide with slots, you might think that leaving the end open is the most simple way of injecting or removing energy in a waveguide. This is not the case, however, because when energy leaves a waveguide, fields form around the end of the waveguide. These fields cause an impedance mismatch which, in turn, causes the development of standing waves and a drastic loss in efficiency. Various methods of impedance matching and terminating waveguides will be covered in the next section.
Q.24 What term is used to identify each of the many field configurations that can exist
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