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The subdominant seventh is a Maj7 in major keys and a min7 in minor keys. Major sevenths are dissonant and occur infrequently. Inversions produce minor seconds or minor ninths; therefore, the IV7 in major occurs primarily in root position and occasionally in first inversion. In minor, the iv7 occurs only in root position. The IV7 (iv7) progresses either to a dominant triad (seventh) or leading tone triad (seventh). In minor it may also progress to the subtonic chord.

FIGURE 10.5. Subdominant Sevenths
The IV7 (iv7) frequently occurs before the supersonic seventh chord. Resolution of the seventh occurs while the remaining voices sustain. It can be figured as a supersonic seventh with appoggiatura.

FIGURE 10.6. Progression of the Subdominant Seventh to Supersonic Seventh


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