The atmosphere is the entire mass of air that surrounds the earth. While it extends upward for about 500 miles, the section of primary interest is the portion that rests on the earth’s surface and extends upward for about 7 1/2 miles. This layer is called the troposphere.
If a column of air 1-inch square extending all the way to the "top" of the atmosphere could be weighed, this column of air would weigh approximately 14.7 pounds at sea level. Thus, atmospheric pressure at sea level is approximately 14.7 psi.
As one ascends, the atmospheric pressure decreases by approximately 1.0 psi for every 2,343 feet. However, below sea level, in excavations and depressions, atmospheric pressure increases. Pressures under water differ from those under air only because the weight of the water must be added to the pressure of the air.
Atmospheric pressure can be measured by any of several methods. The common laboratory method uses the mercury column barometer. The height of the mercury column serves as an indicator of atmospheric pressure. At sea level and at a temperature of 0° Celsius (C), the height of the mercury column is approximately 30 inches, or 76 centimeters. This represents a pressure of approximately 14.7 psi. The 30-inch column is used as a reference standard.
Another device used to measure atmospheric pressure is the aneroid barometer. The aneroid barometer uses the change in shape of an evacuated metal cell to measure variations in atmospheric pressure (fig. 2-2). The thin metal of the aneroid cell moves in or out with the variation of pressure on its external surface. This movement is transmitted through a system of levers to a pointer, which indicates the pressure.
The atmospheric pressure does not vary uniformly with altitude. It changes more rapidly at lower altitudes because of the compressibility of the air, which causes the air layers close to the earth’s surface to be compressed by the air masses above them. This effect, however, is partially counteracted by the contraction of the upper layers due to cooling. The cooling tends to increase the density of the air.
Figure 2-2.—Simple diagram of the aneroid barometer.
Atmospheric pressures are quite large, but in most instances practically the same pressure is present on all sides of objects so that no single surface is subjected to a great load.
Atmospheric pressure acting on the surface of a liquid (fig. 2-3, view A) is transmitted equally throughout the liquid to the walls of the container, but is balanced by the same atmospheric pressure acting on the outer walls of the container. In view B of figure 2-3, atmospheric pressure acting on the surface of one piston is balanced by the same pressure acting on the surface of the other piston. The different areas of the two surfaces make no difference, since for a unit of area, pressures are balanced.
TRANSMISSION OF FORCES THROUGH LIQUIDS
When the end of a solid bar is struck, the main force of the blow is carried straight through the bar to the other end (fig. 2-4, view A). This happens because the bar is rigid. The direction of the blow almost entirely determines the direction of the transmitted force. The more rigid
Figure 2-4.—Transmission of force: (A) solid; (B) fluid. the bar, the less force is lost inside the bar or transmitted outward at right angles to the direction of the blow.
When a force is applied to the end of a column of confined liquid (fig. 2-4, view B), it is transmitted straight through to the other end and also equally and undiminished in every direction throughout the column—forward, backward, and sideways—so that the containing vessel is literally filled with pressure.
An example of this distribution of force is illustrated in figure 2-5. The flat hose takes on Figure 2-3.—Effects of atmospheric pressure a circular cross section when it is filled with water under pressure. The outward push of the water is equal in every direction.
Figure 2-5.—Distribution of force.
So far we have explained the effects of atmospheric pressure on liquids and how external forces are distributed through liquids. Let us now focus our attention on forces generated by the weight of liquids themselves. To do this, we must first discuss density, specific gravity, and Pascal’s law.