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The barrel or bore in which an engine piston moves back and forth may be an integral part of the cylinder block, or it may be a separate sleeve or liner. The first type, common in gasoline engines, has the disadvantage of not being replaceable. When excessive wear occurs in a block of this type, the cylinder must be rebored or honed. Reconditioning of this type cannot be repeated indefinitely and, in time, the entire block must be replaced. Another disadvantage is the inconvenience, especially in large engines, of having to remove the entire cylinder block from a ship in order to recondition the cylinders. For these reasons, diesel engines are constructed with replaceable cylinder liners. The cylinder liners we will discuss are representative of those used in diesel engines.

The material of a liner must withstand the extreme heat and pressure developed within the combustion space at the top of the cylinder and, at the same time, must permit the piston and its sealing rings to move with a minimum of friction. Close-grained cast iron is the material most commonly used for liner construction. (Steel, however, is sometimes used.) Some liners are plated on the wearing surface with porous chromium, because chromium has greater wear-resistant qualities than other materials. Also the pores in the plating tend to hold the lubricating oil and aid in maintaining the lubrication oil film that is necessary for reduction of friction and wear.

Cylinder liners may be divided into two general classifications or typesdry or wet. The dry liner does not come in contact with the coolant. Instead, it fits closely against the wall of the cooling jacket in the cylinder block. With the wet liner, the coolant comes in direct contact with the liner. Wet liners may have a cooling water space between the engine block and liner, or they may have integral cooling passages. Liners with integral cooling passages are sometimes referred to as water-jacket liners.

Dry Liners

Dry liners have relatively thin walls compared with wet liners (fig. 3-10). The cross section of a dry liner can be seen in the right-hand view of figure 3-2. Note that the coolant circulates through passages in the block and does not come in contact with the liner.

Wet Liners

In wet liners that do not have integral cooling passages, the water jacket is formed by the liner and a separate jacket which is a part of the block. (See fig. 3-11.) A static seal must be provided at both the combustion and crankshaft ends of the cylinders to prevent the leakage of coolant into the oil pan sump, or combustion space. Generally, the seal at the combustion end of a liner consists of either a gasket under a flange or a machined fit. Rubber or neoprene rings generally form the seal at the crankshaft end of the liner. Liners of this type are constructed to permit lengthwise expansion and contraction. The walls of a wet liner must be strong enough to withstand the full working pressure of the combustion gases.

Figure 3-10.A dry cylinder liner (General Motors 71 series).

Figure 3-11.Cross section of a wet cylinder liner.

Figure 3-12.A brazed-on water-jacket cylinder liner (General Motors EMD 645E5).

Figure 3-13.Cross section of a cast-on water-jacket cylinder liner with air ports.

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