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UNIT 6

CLIMATOLOGY AND WORLD WEATHER

FOREWORD

One of the major tasks of the Aerographer’s Mate and the Naval Oceanography Command is providing long-range weather information and predictions based on recognized meteorological occurrences in a particular area or region of the world.

Naval exercises both at sea and ashore are planned months and sometimes years in advance. To carry out these exercises successfully, we must have an idea of the normal weather conditions for the operational area (OPAREA) at that time of year. It is both dangerous and unwise to conduct costly train-ing exercises if the weather conditions for the OPAREA are known to be adverse at that time of year.

During wartime, an extensive knowledge of weather conditions can be a decisive advantage. Naval and land forces can use their knowledge of weather to surprise the enemy and predict when the enemy will strike. Historically, man wages war when the weather permits. When Napoleon invaded Russia, his defeat was not due to the wisdom of his opponents, but rather to his lack of knowledge of the severe Russian winters. He was beaten by the weather. As you gain more experience, your job will include the preparation of long-range weather forecasts based on climatological studies. You must prepare charts, tables and/or graphs that include sky cover, temperatures, winds, sea conditions, etc. This climatological information is needed for long-range naval exercises, ship deployments overseas, and actual combat operations. Lesson 1 of this unit covers climate and climatology. Lessons 2 and 3 cover climatic elements and how they are presented. Lessons 4 and 5 include climate classification and climatic controls. Lesson 6 deals with the various sources for climatological data, and Lesson 7 provides a brief summary of weather found in various regions of the world. The unit concludes with a practical training exercise in which you prepare a climatological summary for a selected region based on your present duty station assignment.

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