ARC WELDING POSITIONS
The types of welds, joints, and welding positions used in manual-shielded metal arc welding are very similar to those used in oxygas welding. Naturally, the techniques are somewhat different because of the equipment involved is different.
Figure 7-17.-Butt joints in the flat position.
Earlier reexplained that welding can be done in any position, but it is much simpler when done in the flat position. In this position, the work is less tiring, welding speed is faster, the molten puddle is not as likely to run, and better penetration can be achieved. Whenever possible, try to position the work so you can weld in the flat position. In the flat position, the face of the weld is approximately horizontal.
Butt joints are the primary type of joints used in the flat position of welding; however, flat-position welding can be made on just about any type of joint providing you can rotate the section you are welding on to the appropriate position. Techniques that are useful in making butt joints in the flat position, with and without the use of backing strips, are described below.
Plates up to 1/8 inch thick can be welded in one pass with no special edge preparation. Plates from 1/8 to 3/16 inch in thickness also can be welded with no special edge preparation by welding on both sides of the joint.
Figure 7-19.-Weave motions used in manual shielded arc welding.
Tack welds should be used to keep the plates aligned for welding. The electrode motion is the same as that used in making a bead weld.
In welding 1/4-inch plate or heavier, you should prepare the edges of the plates by beveling or by J-, U-, or V-grooving, whichever is the most applicable. You should use single or double bevels or grooves when the specifications and/or the plate thickness requires it. The first bead is deposited to seal the space between the two plates and to weld the root of the joint. This bead or layer of weld metal must be thoroughly cleaned to remove all slag and dirt before the second layer of metal is deposited.
Figure 7-20.-Undercutting in butt joint welds.
In making multipass welds, as shown in figure 7-18, the second, third, and fourth layers of weld metal are made with a weaving motion of the electrode. Clean each layer of metal before laying additional beads. You may use one of the weaving motions shown in figure 7-19, depending upon the type of joint and size of electrode.
In the weaving motion, oscillate or move the electrode uniformly from side to side, with a slight hesitation at the end of each oscillation. Incline the electrode 5 to 15 degrees in the direction of welding as in bead welding. When the weaving motion is not done properly, undercutting could occur at the joint, as shown in figure 7-20. Excessive welding speed also can cause undercutting and poor fusion at the edges of the weld bead.
BUTT JOINTS WITH BACKING STRIPS.Welding 3/16-inch plate or thicker requires backing strips to ensure complete fusion in the weld root pass and to provide better control of the arc and the weld metal. Prepare the edges of the plates in the same manner as required for welding without backing strips.
Figure 7-21.-Use of backing strips in welding butt joints.
For plates up to 3/8 inch thick, the backing strips should be approximately 1 inch wide and 3/16 inch thick. For plates more than 1/2inch thick, the backing strips should be 1 1/2 inches wide and 1/4 inch thick Tack-weld the backing strip to the base of the joint, as shown in figure 7-21. The backing strip acts as a cushion for the root pass. Complete the joint by welding additional layers of metal. After you complete the joint, the backing strip may be "washed" off or cut away with a cutting torch. When specified, place a seal bead along the root of the joint.
Bear in mind that many times it will not always be possible to use a backing strip; therefore, the welder must be able to run the root pass and get good penetration without the formation of icicles.
Figure 7-22.-Horizontal groove weld.