Figure 3-42A. - Relationship of gate to linearity.
Figure 3-42B. - Relationship of gate to linearity.
Changing the value of R and C in the circuit affects linearity since they control the time for 1 time constant. For example, if the value of C2 is increased in the circuit, as shown in figure 3-43, view (A), the time for 1 time constant increases and the number of time constants then decreases. With a decrease in the number of time constants, linearity increases. The reason is that a smaller percentage of VCC is used, and the circuit is operating in a more linear portion of the charge curve. Increasing the value of the TC (C2 or R2) decreases the amplitude of the sawtooth (physical length) because C2 now charges to a smaller percentage VCC for a given time. The electrical length remains the same because the length of time that C2 is allowed to charge has not been changed.
Figure 3-43A. - Relationship of R and C to linearity.
Figure 3-43B. - Relationship of R and C to linearity.
Decreasing the value of the TC (R2 or C2), as shown in figure 3-43, view (B), results in an increase in the number of time constants and therefore causes linearity to decrease. Anytime the number of time constants increases, the percentage of charge increases (see the Universal
Time Constant Chart, figure 3-39), and amplitude (physical length) increases. Without an increase in gate length, the time that C2 is allowed to charge through R2 remains the same; therefore, electrical length remains the same. Linearity is affected by gate length, the value of R, and the value of C; but is not affected by changing the value of VCC. Increasing the gate length decreases linearity, and decreasing gate length increases linearity. Increasing R or C in the circuit increases linearity, and decreasing R or C in the circuit decreases linearity.
The entire time of the sawtooth, from the time at which the capacitor begins charging (T0 in figure 3-41, view (B)) to the time when it starts charging again (T2), is known as the prt of the wave. The pulse repetition frequency of the sawtooth wave is:
UNIJUNCTION SAWTOOTH GENERATOR. - So far, you have learned in this chapter that a switch and an RC network can generate a sawtooth waveform. When using a unijunction transistor as the switch, a simple sawtooth generator looks like the circuit in figure 3-44, view (A); the output waveshapes are shown in view (B). You may want to review unijunction transistors in NEETS, Module 7, Introduction to Solid-State Devices and Power Supplies, chapter 3, before continuing.
Figure 3-44A. - Unijunction sawtooth generator. SCHEMATIC
When the 20 volts is applied across B2 and B1, the n-type bar acts as a voltage- divider. A voltage of 12.8 volts appears at a point near the emitter. At the first instant, C1 has no voltage across it, so the output of the circuit, which is taken across the capacitor (C1), is equal to 0 volts. (The voltage across C1 is also the voltage that is applied to the emitter of the unijunction.) The unijunction is now reverse biased. After T0, C1 begins to charge toward 20 volts.
At T1, the voltage across the capacitor (the voltage on the emitter) has reached approximately 12.8 volts. This is the peak point for the unijunction, and it now becomes forward biased. With the emitter forward biased, the impedance between the emitter and B1 is just a few ohms. This is similar to placing a short across the capacitor. The capacitor discharges very rapidly through the low resistance of B1 to E.
As C1 discharges, the voltage from the emitter to B1 also decreases. Q1 will continue to be forward biased as long as the voltage across C1 is larger than the valley point of the unijunction.
At T2 the 3-volt valley point of the unijunction has been reached. The emitter now becomes reverse biased and the impedance from the emitter to B1 returns to a high value. Immediately after T2, Q1 is reverse biased and the capacitor has a charge of approximately 3 volts. C1 now starts to charge toward 20 volts as it did originally (just after T0). This is shown from T2 to T3 in figure 3-44, view (B).
Figure 3-44B. - Unijunction sawtooth generator. EMITTER WAVEFORM
The circuit operation from now on is just a continuous repetition of the actions between T2 and T4. The capacitor charges until the emitter becomes forward biased, the unijunction conducts and C1 discharges, and Q1 becomes reverse biased and C1 again starts charging.
Now, let's determine the linearity, electrical length, and amplitude of the output waveform. First, the linearity: To charge the circuit to the full 20 volts will take 5 time constants. In the circuit shown in figure 3-44, view (B ), C1 is allowed to charge from T2 to T3. To find the percentage of charge, use the equation:
This works out to be about 57 percent and is far beyond the 10 percent required for a linear sweep voltage. The linearity is very poor in this example.
The electrical length (sweep time), which is measured from T2 to T3, can be found by multiplying RC times the number of time constants. Refer to the Universal Time Constant Chart (figure 3-39) again to find that 57 percent is 0.83TC. By multiplying 0.83 times R1C1, you will find that the electrical length is approximately 21 milliseconds:
The physical length (amplitude) is determined by subtracting the valley point from the peak point. This is 9.8 volts in the example (12.8 volts - 3 volts).