Woven covers, commonly called loom, are used when exceptional abrasion-resistant qualities are required. These covers are composed of thick, heavy, long-fibered cotton yarns woven around the cable in a circular loom, much like that used on a fire hose. They are not braids, although braid covering are also woven; they are designated differently.
Rubber and Synthetic Coverings
Rubber and synthetic coverings are not standardized. Different manufactures have their own special compounds designated by individual trade names. These compounds are different from the rubber compounds used to insulate cable. These compounds have been perfected not for insulation qualities but for resistance to abrasion, moisture, oil, gasoline, acids, earth solutions, and alkalies. None of these coverings will provide protection against all types of exposure. Each covering has its own particular limitations and qualifications.
Jute and Asphalt Coverings
Jute and asphalt coverings are commonly used as a cushion between cable insulation and metallic armor. Frequently, they are also used as a corrosive-resistant covering over a lead sheath or metallic armor. Jute and asphalt coverings consist of asphalt-impregnated jute yarn heli-wrapped around the cable or of alternate layers of asphalt-impregnated jute yarn. These coverings serve as a weatherproofing.
Unspun Felted Cotton
Unspun felted cotton is commonly used only in special classes of service. It is made as a solid felted covering for a cable.
Metallic protection is of two types: sheath or armor. As with all wires and cables, the type of protection needed will depend on the environment where the wire or cable will be used.
Cables or wires that are continually subjected to water must be protected by a watertight cover. This watertight cover is either a continuous metal jacket or a rubber sheath molded around the cable.
Figure 1-16 is an example of a lead-sheathed
(jacketed) cable used in power work. This cable is a standard three-conductor type. Each conductor is insulated and then wrapped in a layer of rubberized tape. The conductors are twisted together, and rope or fillers are added to form a round core. Over this is wrapped a second layer of tape called a serving.
Finally, a lead sheath is molded around the cable.
Figure 1-16. - Lead-sheathed cable.
Lead-sheathed cable is one of three types currently being used: alloy lead, pure lead, and reinforced lead. An alloy-lead sheath is much like a pure lead sheath but is manufactured with 2-percent tin. This alloy is more resistant to gouging and abrasion during and after installation. Reinforced lead sheath is used mainly for oil-filled cables where high internal pressures can be expected. Reinforced lead sheath consists of a double lead sheath.
A thin tape of hard-drawn copper, bronze, or other elastic metal (preferably nonmagnetic) is wrapped around the inner sheath. This tape gives considerable additional strength and elasticity to the sheath, but must be protected from corrosion. For this reason, a second lead sheath is applied over the tape.
Metallic armor provides a tough protective covering for wires and cables. The type, thickness, and kind of metal used to make the armor depend on three factors: (1) the use of the conductors, (2) the environment where the conductors are to be used, and (3) the amount of rough treatment that is expected.
Figure 1-17 shows three examples of metallic armor cable: wire braid, steel tape, and wire armor.
Figure 1-17. - Metallic armor cable.
WIRE-BRAID ARMOR. - Wire-braid armor (view A of figure 1-17 ), also known as basket-weave armor, is used when light and flexible protection is needed. Wire braid is constructed much like fibrous braid. The metal is woven directly over the cable as the outer covering. The metal used in this braid is galvanized steel, bronze, copper, or aluminum. Wire-braid armor is mainly for shipboard use.
STEEL TAPE. - A second type of metallic armor is steel tape. Steel tape covering (view B of figure 1-17) is wrapped around the cable and then covered with a serving of jute. There are two types of steel tape armor. The first is called interlocking armor. Interlocking armor is applied by wrapping the tape around the cable so that each turn is overlapped by the next and is locked in place. The second type is flat-band armor. Flat-band armor consists of two layers of steel tape.
The first layer is wrapped around the cable but is not overlapped. The second layer is then wrapped around the cable covering the area that was not covered by the first layer.
WIRE ARMOR. - Wire armor is a layer of wound metal wire wrapped around the cable. Wire armor is usually made of galvanized steel and can be used over a lead sheath (see view C of figure 1-17). It can be used with the sheath as a buried cable where moisture is a concern, or without the sheath (view D of figure 1-17) when used in buildings.