The information that follows summarizes the important points of this chapter.
ELECTRON TUBES are usually tested for SHORTS, TRANSCONDUCTANCE, and the presence of GAS. Several different types of tubes (i.e., twt's, magnetrons, and klystrons) are normally tested in-circuit.
Most TRANSISTORS can be tested by measuring the forward-to-back resistance of their junctions using a standard ohmmeter. The resistance scale of the ohmmeter must be carefully selected to ensure that the current rating of the transistor is not exceeded.
ESD-SENSITIVE DEVICES are components that require special handling. Some of the more sensitive devices can be damaged by static charges as small as 35 volts.
Most DIODES and MOSFETs can be tested by measuring the forward-to-back resistance of their junctions using a standard ohmmeter. MOSFETS, however, are classed as ESD-sensitive devices; and care should be exercised when handling or testing them.
INTEGRATED CIRCUITS (ICs) have revolutionized the electronics industry. They are rugged, compact, and inexpensive. There is a wide assortment of equipment on the market designed for testing ICs.
BATTERIES are common to a large number of both electronic test equipment and operational equipment. You should be familiar with the different types of batteries, their test requirements, and the safety precautions to be followed.
RF ATTENUATORS and RESISTIVE LOADS are common devices that are widely used for attenuating rf signals and impedance matching. Resistive loads can be tested with a standard ohmmeter, and rf attenuators are normally tested through the rf substitution method.
FIBER-OPTIC CABLES are used primarily for the transmission of high-speed data over short distances. Their construction and theory of operation require that they be tested with a light source, usually a laser beam. There is a wide assortment of test equipment designed specifically for testing fiber-optic cables.
AUTOMATIC TEST EQUIPMENT (ATE) is test equipment designed to evaluate the operational performance of a piece of equipment or printed circuit board (pcb).
The HUNTRON TRACKER 2000 is a versatile troubleshooting tool commonly used for statically testing resistors, capacitors, inductors, diodes, transistors, multiple-component circuits, and integrated circuits.