An anticipation is a non-harmonic tone which becomes a chord tone in the following chord. Anticipations occur in a weak rhythmic position, frequently at the subdivided beat level. Generally, anticipations occur in the Soprano voice at cadence points.
FIGURE 8.20: Anticipation
A pedal is a non-harmonic tone of long duration normally occurring in three or more chords. A pedal begins and ends as a chord tone of a harmony and must be non-harmonic in at least one chord between the first and last chords. Pedals occur primarily in the Bass voice with the Tenor voice used for analysis and figured bass. A pedal in the Soprano voice is called an inverted pedal. A pedal in the Tenor or Alto voices is called an internal pedal. Pedals occurring in two voices are called double pedals. The lowest moving voice is used for analysis and figured bass. The tonic and dominant scale degrees are the commonly used pedal notes.
FIGURE 8.21: Pedal