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Reinforcing Steel

Steel is the best material for reinforcing concrete because the coefficients of expansion of the steel and the concrete are considered almost the same; that is, at a normal temperature, they will expand and contract at an almost equal rate. (At very high temperatures, steel will expand more rapidly than the concrete, and the two materials will separate.)

Steel also works well as a reinforcement for concrete because it makes a good bond with the concrete. This bond strength is proportional to the contact area surface of the steel to the concrete. In other words, the greater the surface of steel exposed to the adherence of the concrete, the stronger the bond. A deformed reinforcing bar

Figure 7- 10.-Types of deformed reinforcing bars.

is better than a plain round or square one. In fact, when plain bars of a given diameter are used instead of deformed bars, approximately 40 percent more plain bars must be used.

The adherence of the concrete depends on the roughness of the steel surface: the rougher the steel, the better the adherence. Thus, steel with alight, firm layer of rust is superior to clean steel, but steel with loose or scaly rust is inferior. Loose or scaly rust may be removed from the steel by rubbing the steel with burlap. The requirements for reinforcing steel are that it be strong in tension and, at the same time, ductile enough to be shaped or bent cold.

Reinforcing steel may be used in the form of bars or rods that are either PLAIN or DEFORMED or in the form of expanded metal, wire, wire fabric, or sheet metal. Each type is useful for a different purpose, and engineers design structures with these purposes in mind.

Plain reinforcing bars are usually round in cross section. They are used as main tension reinforcement for concrete structures. They are the least used of the rod type of reinforcement because they offer only smooth, even surfaces for the adherence of concrete. Reinforcing bars or rods are commonly referred to as rebars.

Deformed bars are like the plain bars except that they have either indentations in them or ridges on them, or both, in a regular pattern. The twisted bar, for example, is made by twisting a plain square bar cold. The spiral ridges along the surface of the deformed bar increase its bond strength with concrete. Other forms used are the round- and square-corrugate d bars. These bars are formed with projections around the surface that extend into the surrounding concrete and prevent slippage. Another type is formed with longitudinal fins projecting from the surface to prevent twisting. Figure 7-10 shows a few of the various types of deformed bars available. In the United States, deformed bars are used almost exclusively, while in Europe, both deformed and plain bars are used.

There are 11 standard sizes of reinforcing bars. Table 7-1 lists the bar numbers, weight, and nominal diameters of the 11 standard sizes. Bars No. 3 through No. 18, inclusive, are deformed bars. Remember that bar numbers are based on the nearest number of 1/8 in. (3. 175 mm) included in the nominal diameter of the bar. To measure rebar, you must measure across the roundsquare portion where there is no deformation.

Table 7-1.-Standard Reinforcing Bars

The raised portion of the deformation is not considered in measuring the rebar diameter.


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