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Beam and Girder Forms

The type of construction to be used for beam forms depends upon whether the form is to be removed in one piece or whether the sides are to be stripped and the bottom left in place until such time as the concrete has developed enough strength to permit removal of the shoring. The latter type of beam form is preferred, and details for this type are shown in figure 7-35. Beam forms are subjected to very little bursting pressure but must be shored up at frequent intervals to prevent sagging under the weight of the fresh concrete.

Figure 7-36 shows atypical interior beam form with slab forms supported on the beam sides. This drawing indicates that 3/4-in. plywood serves as the beam sides and that the beam bottom is a solid piece of 2-in. dimensioned lumber supported on the bottom by 4- by 4-in. T-head shores. The vertical side members, referred to in the figure as blocking, are placed to assist in transmitting slab loads to the supporting shores.

MASONRY

MASONRY is that form of construction composed of stone, concrete, brick, gypsum, hollow clay tile, concrete brick, tile, or other similar building units or materials or a combination of these materials, laid up unit by unit and set in mortar. This section will discuss the basic masonry materials commonly used in construction.

CONCRETE MASONRY

Concrete masonry has become increasingly important as a construction material. Important technological developments in the manufacture and utilization of the units have accompanied the rapid increase in the use of concrete masonry. Concrete masonry walls properly designed and constructed will satisfy various building requirements including fire, safety, durability, economy, appearance, utility, comfort, and good acoustics.

The most common concrete masonry unit is the CONCRETE BLOCK. It is manufactured from both normal and lightweight aggregates. There are two types of concrete block:

heavyweight and lightweight. The heavyweight block is manufactured from cement, water, and aggregates, such as sand, gravel, and crushed limestone. The lightweight blocks use a combination of cement, water, and a lightweight aggregate. Cinders, pumice, expanded shale, and vermiculite are a few of the aggregates used in lightweight block production. The lightweight units weigh about 30 percent less than the heavyweight units.

Concrete blocks are made to comply with certain requirements, notably compressive strength, absorption, and moisture content. Compressive strength requirements provide a measure of the blocks’ ability to carry loads and withstand structural stresses. Absorption requirements provide a measure of the density of the concrete while moisture content requirements indicate if the unit is sufficiently dry for use in wall construction.



 


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