Triangular Scale Clip

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Triangular Scale Clip

For use with a triangular scale, a scale clip or scale guard, such as the one shown in figure 2-27, is very helpful. The clip makes it easy for you to identify what scale you are using. Large spring-type paper clips will serve the same purpose when scale clips are not available.

Figure 2-27.-Use of triangular scale clip.

MAP MEASURES AND SCALE INDICATORS

MAP MEASURES are precision instruments for measuring the lengths of roads, pipelines, and other irregular outlines on maps and drawings. Distances are measured by first setting the instrument to zero, then tracing the line to be measured with the small, projecting tracing wheel, like that on the map measures shown in figure 2-28.

In using map measures, do not depend entirely on the indicated numerical scale. Always check it against the graphical scale on the map or drawing. Verify if, for example, 1 in. traversed

Figure 2-28.-Types of map measures.

on the graphical scale really registers 1 in. on the dial; if not, make the proper correction to the distance measured. Actually, a map measure is just another odometer. Odometers are used to measure actual distances, while the map measures are used to measure scaled distances. There are many ways of indicating the scale on a drawing. Among these are the fractional method, the equation method, and the graphic method.

In the fractional method, the scale is indicated as a fraction or a ratio. A full-size scale is indicated as 1/1; enlarged scale, as 10/1, 4/1, 2/1, etc.; and reduced scale, as 1/2, 1/4, 1/10, etc. Notice that the drawing unit is always given as the numerator of the fraction and the object unit as the denominator. On maps, the reduced scale fraction may be very large (for example, 1/50,000), as compared with the typical scales on machine drawings. On maps, the scale is frequently expressed as a ratio, such as 1:50,000. In the equation method, a certain number of inches on the drawing is set equal to a certain length on the object. Symbols are used for feet (') and inches ("). On architectural drawings, a certain number of inches on the drawing is set to equal to 1 foot on the object. A full-size scale is entered as 12" = 1' – 0"; an enlarged scale, as 24" = 1’–0"; and a reduced scale, as 1/8" = 1' – 0". On civil engineering drawings, 1 in. on the drawing is set to equal to a certain measurement on the object: 1" = 5', 1" = 100', 1" = 1 mi.

In the graphic method, an actual measuring scale is shown on the drawing. Typical graphic scales are shown in figure 2-29. Note that in each case, the primary scale lies to the right of the 0; a subdivided primary scale unit lies to the left of the 0.